Tag Archives: Psychology

Effect of Motivational Type on Goal-Setting Behavior

Maryam Kazmi
Boston College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/kazmi.html

Abstract: Whether an athlete is intrinsically, extrinsically, or amotivated and whether or not he or she sets goals are important determinants of that athlete’s performance. This study was aimed at exploring whether a certain type of motivation can predict whether a person will use goal-setting techniques and find them to be effective. The present study also hoped to determine whether the type of motivation that athletes reported and their goal-setting behavior differed depending on whether they were recreational or elite collegiate athletes. Male basketball players were recruited to participate in the study, half of whom were recreational athletes and the other half from the Boston College Men’s D1 Basketball team. Through the use of two separate questionnaires that were administered to participants, the results of the studies supported the assertion that intrinsically motivated individuals tended to set more goals, commit to these goals, and found these goals to be more effective than those who exhibited the other types of motivation. No differences existed between the recreational group and the D1 group in either motivation or goal setting behavior. This study informs researchers that individuals who participate in a sport for the sake of the sport itself tend to set more goals in order to benefit their own performance.

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Women with Eating Disorders and Perceived Social Support

Claire E. Cusack & Jennifer L. Hughes*
Agnes Scott College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/cusack.html

Abstract: Body image issues and eating disorders are becoming a growing concern for women. Social support has been found to serve as a buffer for mental health even when the person is experiencing psychological distress (Kawachi & Berkman, 2001). The aim of the current study was to determine whether social support is related to eating disorder attitudes and body image concerns by examining the effects of social support for women with and without eating disorders while attending to other variables, such as eating disorder type, level of care received, and sexual orientation. Our sample was composed of 202 participants who voluntarily completed an online survey. There were positive correlations between body image and perceived social support from family and friends for women with and without eating disorders. ANOVAs showed no significant effect of perceived social support from friends or family or level of care on eating disorder symptoms or body image. Lastly, in regard to sexual orientation, there were no significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in eating disordered symptoms, number of women with eating disorders, or body image concern. The results indicate that women with eating disorders perceive less social support than women without eating disorders from friends, and family. Additionally, social support from family and friends is related to a more positive body image for both women with and without eating disorder history. Women experience similar frequency of eating disordered symptoms and body image concerns regardless of type of social support or level of care. Lastly, our findings show that women of varying sexual orientations experience eating disorder symptoms and body image concerns at similar rates. The results of this research have implications to influence eating disorder prevention and treatment programs by acknowledging the impact of social support on eating disorder symptoms and body image for women.

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An Investigation of Status Posts and Happiness of Facebook Users

Angela V. Galioto, Jennifer L. Hughes, and Chen Zuo,
Agnes Scott College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/galioto.html

Abstract: Online social networking sites have become a way for individuals to keep in contact with others around the world, with Facebook being one of the most popular sites. Facebook allows individuals to express themselves through its features, one of which is the status update. The authors examined whether or not there was a relationship between the content and frequency of Facebook users’ status posts and their happiness. The researchers had three hypotheses: (a) users who reported more happiness would have more positive posts, (b) younger users would post more frequently and post more negative content, (c) women would post more frequently and post more negative content as compared to men, and (d) frequent posts would contain more negative content. The study included 412 participants of which 89 percent were female. The participants completed an online survey, giving their three most recent status posts, and they completed a happiness scale. A positive correlation between age and happiness was found, men posted more frequently than women, and a negative relationship between frequency of status posts and positive content was found. This study adds to the literature on Facebook and users’ happiness. For future studies researchers should measure both personality and life satisfaction along with the content of Facebook posts.

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Predictors of Agoraphobia

Keshia Wagers, Jonathan S. Gore*, Eastern Kentucky University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/wagers.html

Abstract: Separation anxiety disorder, school phobia, and gender have all been implicated in being able to predict the onset of agoraphobia. This study tested the hypothesis that separation anxiety disorder, school phobia, and gender would predict unique variance in the symptoms of agoraphobia both with a close companion and when alone. One hundred students at Eastern Kentucky University completed a survey that assessed their separation anxiety disorder symptoms, school phobia symptoms experienced during childhood, and agoraphobia symptoms. Symptoms of school phobia predicted symptoms of agoraphobia when the individual was with someone, and both school phobia and separation anxiety disorder symptoms predicted symptoms of agoraphobia when the individual was alone. Gender was not a significant predictor of agoraphobia symptoms. These results imply that more factors may influence the expression of agoraphobia symptoms when an individual is alone compared to when they are with someone else.

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Identifying Dominant Personality Traits

Kirstie L. Bash and Lynn S. Urban,
University of Central Missouri

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/bash.html

Abstract Determining dominant personality traits among students enables personality to be matched with the “best fit” for career placement, as well as to match student personalities with faculty personalities. This research aims to establish literature on criminal justice student personality traits and to determine scores on personality inventories. Results from analyzing data from 124 criminal justice and 67 psychology students, using an independent measures t-test for the Big Five personality scores, suggest that overlapping career paths is responsible for similar scores on personality inventories. Dominant personality traits were not observed in the results; however, this research provides a foundation on personality research for criminal justice students.

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Estimating Suicide Rates in Nations that Do Not Report Suicide Statistics

Zorel Zambrano and Lawrence T. White*, Beloit College

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/zambrano.html

Abstract We report a new method to estimate suicide rates in nations that do not collect or report suicide statistics. Using indicators of suicide rates in a sample of 73 nations and standard regression techniques, we identified four predictors—divorce rate, locus of control, per capita GDP, and fertility rate—and generated different regression equations. These equations appear to produce reasonably valid estimates of national suicide rates.

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Shamans Equal Schizophrenics

Anthony Wilkins, Texas A&M University

Full paper: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/wilkins.html

Abstract The purpose of this research paper is to analyze shamanism and schizophrenia, eventually coming to the conclusion that they are one and the same. Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is the physiological link between the two, while culture is the psychological link between them. This paper goes on to suggest that the shaman is a schizophrenic.

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The Effect of Introversion and Extraversion on the Fear of Negative Evaluation

Melissa Keighin, Kelsey Butcher, Michael Darnell
Huntington University

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/keighin.html 

Abstract The present study examined the relationship between introversion and extroversion personality types and the fear of negative evaluation. Students attending a small Christian-affiliated liberal arts university were selected through convenience sampling to complete the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. It was hypothesized that individuals who were classified as introverted would have a greater fear of negative evaluation than individuals who were classified as extraverted. The results were measured using a two-tailed independent t-test with a significance level of 0.05. The null hypothesis was rejected and a statistically significant relationship was found between introverted individuals and fear of negative evaluation. The hypothesis was supported, affirming that individuals who are assessed to be extroverted will tend to have a lower fear of negative evaluation score than those who are introverted.

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The Influence of Media Marketing on Adolescent Girls

Erica Laurén Sanders
The Master's College

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/sanders.html 

Abstract Current research suggests that “mass media (TV, movies, magazines, internet) pervade the everyday lives of people living in Western societies, and undoubtedly one of the effects of such media saturation is the pervasive transmission of societal beauty ideals” (Tiggemann, 2006, para. 2). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of media marketing on adolescent girls from the ages of 16-19. The survey instrument was distributed to students who were enrolled at the Academy of the Canyons located in Santa Clarita, California, during the spring of 2007. STATPAK was employed to examine the data, and the One-Dimensional Chi-square test was used for data analysis. The findings of the study yielded some significant results. The conclusions of this research suggest that media marketing does influence adolescent girls more than adolescent girls may be aware.

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The Correlation of Self-Esteem and Perceived Social Support

Allison Budd, Callie Buschman, Lucas Esch
Huntington University

Full manuscript: http:www.kon.org/urc/v8/budd.html 

Abstract The present study examined this relationship with a sample from a small liberal arts university population. It was hypothesized that as perceived social support increased, individual self-esteem would also increase. Participants were full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 and were chosen by convenience sampling. The Index of Self-Esteem (Hudson, 1982) and the Social Support Appraisals Scale (Vaux, Phillips, Holley, Thompson, Williams, & Stewart, 1986) were completed for examination. The data were analyzed using the Pearson-r coefficient. Using a .05 level of significance and 38 degrees of freedom, the r was 0.32. A correlation of 0.82 was found signifying a strong relationship between self-esteem and perceived social support. This supports the findings of Gecas (1972), Aberson (1999), and Sanaktekin and Sunar (2008). A larger, more representative sample size may be beneficial for future studies.

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