Stephanie Campbell, Darlene Haff*, Nevada State College
Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/campbell.html
Abstract: This study examines how sports team participation on one, two, or three or more teams is correlated with female adolescent reports of feeling sad and/or hopeless for two or more weeks, being hit by a boyfriend, the number of sexual partners, and substance abuse using the Centers for Disease Control’s Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. A total of 8,280 female adolescents were drawn into the sample. Chi-square tables were used to analyze feelings of sadness and/or hopelessness for two or more weeks, being hit by a boyfriend, and the number of sexual partners. A one-way ANOVA and post hoc test were used to analyze the substance abuse index. Overall, this study found that feelings of sadness and/or hopelessness and substance abuse were significantly reduced with sports team participation. There was a non-significant increase in the percentage reported to not have been hit by a boyfriend between those who did not play on a sports team and those who played on one sports team. Lastly, females with no sex partners or a lower number of sex partners were more likely to be involved with sports team participation.
Heather MacArthur, Carmen Poulin*, University of Brunswick
Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/macarthur.html
Abstract The present research investigates the ratio of male to female characters in a selection of 92 children’s picture books chosen at random from the local library of a small Atlantic Canadian city. Results indicate that, consistent with past findings, male characters are depicted more often than female characters in the titles, cover illustrations, main characters, and page illustrations of the sample. When the results are broken down, however, it is apparent that human male and human female characters are depicted relatively equally, while male animals are represented significantly more often than female animals. Reasons for these findings and the implications for young readers are discussed.
Melissa R. Garwick, Annalise C. Ford, Jennifer L. Hughes*, Agnes Scott College
Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/garwick.html
Abstract The Impostor Phenomenon (IP) has been found mainly in high-achieving women in academic and career fields. Clance and Imes (1978) were the first researchers to identify this phenomenon. For this study, we examined self-esteem levels, grade point average (GPA), and participants’ relationship with their mother. We collected data using an Internet survey taken by 401 female undergraduate and graduate students whose ages ranged from 17 to 42. As hypothesized, females’ relationship with their mother was inversely related to their IP score. However, self-esteem and GPA were not significantly related to females’ IP score. These findings caution mothers to be careful about how they develop their relationship with their daughters.