Physiological Effects of Binaural Beats and Meditative Musical Stimulation

Elizabeth M. Hill and Christina M. Frederick, Sierra Nevada College

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v15/hill.html

Abstract: The current study examined physiological effects of meditation music and binaural beats on humans, solo and in combination. A binaural beat is the presence of two separate auditory tones with equal amplitude and slightly differing frequencies (Goodin et al., 2012). Meditation music is often used with binaural beats to calm individuals (Chan et al., 2008). There is reason to believe binaural beats and meditative music impact human vital signs (Wahbeh et al., 2012). Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded from 60 participants, tested individually, and randomly assigned to one of three listening groups: Beat + Music, Music Only, or Beat Only. Participants experienced their assigned auditory stimulation through headphones for 6 min. Physiological responses were recorded before and during auditory stimulation. A one- way ANOVA showed a significant difference in mean heart rate between listening groups (p = .046). Due to sample size limitations, a subsequent Tukey test (Abdi & Williams, 2010) could not identify the location of the significant difference. The largest difference in averages (at 9.05 bpm) existed between Beat Only and Music Only groups, therefore, indicating this as the location of the significant difference. No significant difference was found between listening groups in blood pressure (systolic: p = .937; diastolic: p = .954) or oxygen saturation (p = .752). It is recommended future studies in this domain incorporate larger sample sizes to ensure statistical sensitivity.

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Small Scale Living and the Meaning of Home

Shelby Kiser, Kansas State University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v15/kiser.html

Abstract: In current United States housing trends, prices and square footage are rising as personal satisfaction and fulfillment decline. This is a result of people assuming that upgrading their living standards will provide instant gratification, but it may only lead to unhappiness. As our houses grow larger, so do our debts. During the most recent economic down turn a renewed interest in small scale living arose. People began seeing the value in downsizing, reducing debt, and living more sustainably. Evaluating the functional, environmental, economic, and psychological aspects of living small will help determine what challenges one will face by reconsidering how and where they live. With a deeper understanding of the connections and value of home, designers are able create dwellings that can positively influence the users. The potential impact starts with designers, therefore it is crucial to be educated and actively implementing this knowledge into designs.

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Could our patients be better served? A health literacy assessment of rural community pharmacies

Brandi Jones, Truman State University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v15/jones.html

Abstract: Pharmacy staff and patient health literacy practices were assessed for pharmacies in a rural MO county with many residents at risk for low health literacy. Using AHRQ’s Pharmacy Health Literacy Assessment Tool, overall weaknesses of county pharmacies determined as a result of the Assessment Tour section of the Tool included lack of interpretation services and poor print font size and clarity of leaflets. When a focus group was also conducted as part of the Tool, participants identified several barriers to service including reliance on their doctors, not their pharmacists, for medication information. The pharmacies in this sample were not as effective as they could be in meeting the needs of those with lower health literacy levels, and it is suggested that with some intentional changes, these pharmacies can better serve their patients with low health literacy.

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Exploring Suicidal Ideation in College Students

Melanie Mann, Bonnie Ahn*, Lolita Boykin*, Southeastern Louisiana University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v15/mann.html

Abstract: The goal of this study is to provide insight into the challenges that college students with suicidal thoughts face as a marginalized group and to yield information that will expand the existing body of knowledge regarding this topic. The study was based on the collective experiences of three college students and the language constructed by them during in-depth interviews. Results suggest that these interviewees experienced pain and suffering over a prolonged period of time inspiring thoughts of suicide. All participants stated that they did not want to be thought of negatively or misunderstood, so they didn’t talk about it on campus or to their parents. It is crucial for the general college student population and mental health professionals to recognize and validate the struggles of these students, particularly during crisis. Advocacy in colleges and universities will take on special importance as more students with special needs, particularly those with mental health issues make the transition from secondary to postsecondary education. The experiences of these three participants are important and meaningful; however they may not necessarily be representative of the greater populations.

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Efficacy of a Group Treatment for Children with Significant Social Skills Deficits

Molly M. Parsons, Stacey S. Park, Lee A. Rosén*, Colorado State University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/parsons.html

Abstract: This study examined the effectiveness of an eight session, outpatient social skills group therapy treatment for children with significant social skills deficits. The curriculum was designed to teach nine specific social skills including: Eye Contact, Personal Space, Self-Emotions, Other-Emotions, Pedantic Speech, Greetings, Conversations, Friendliness, and Play Skills. Seven elementary aged children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder participated. Parents were asked to fill out the Child Social Skills Inventory, which measures these nine social skills domains at two time points: the first day of social skills group (SSG) and the last day of SSG. Results indicate that the treatment was partially effective in improving social skills – pre to post changes in the domain of Self-Emotion were significant. In addition, the domains of Play Skills and Other-Emotion showed improvement near statistical significance. Improvement in these important social skill domains helps substantiate the efficacy of social skills group therapy treatment for children with severe social skill deficits.

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Personality Types and Physical Touch

Zachary Prather & Jenna Bates, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/prather.html

Abstract: The following research is a study looking at the correlation between Myers-Briggs personality types and apprehension or acceptance of physical touch. The participants of the study varied in age and gender, gathered from Facebook and Huntington University’s campus, a small Christian university in the Midwestern United States. We hypothesized that people with the E and F personality type would be the most willing to instigate and accept physical touch, with people with the I and T personality type having the most apprehension to instigating and accepting physical touch. We predicted that extroverts would be more inclined because they are typically more sociable and get their energy from people, while introverts would be less inclined because they are typically more reserved and people drain energy from them. We also hypothesized that people with the F personality type would be more inclined to accept and initiate physical touch because of their predisposition to sympathizing with other people’s emotions, while people with the T personality type are less likely to sympathize with other people’s emotions.

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Benefits of Biophilic Design Explored Through Human Ecology

Melissa Montgomery, Kansas State University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/montgomery.html

Abstract: Technology has influenced the world in many positive ways. I researched and examined the question of how technology effects communication? Technology is great for communication when it comes to connecting with family and friends who live far away. But what are the effects of say: Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, text messaging, etc. on every day face-to-face conversation? This paper explores the possibility of how increased exposure to communicating pathways may actually lessen communication. Mobile technology is anything one can do on phones. Due to smartphones and the availability of them one can access the internet, therefore being able to do countless things on their phones. So the research is inclusive to texting or voice calls, but also includes the countless applications one can download on a phone. Unfortunately, research shows that mobile technology is affecting communication in a negative way when it comes to sociability and face-to-face communication. Researchers have found that mobile technology can decrease communication and intimacy. The results too many research studies seem to point out is that mobile technology lessens social interaction and face-to-face communication do to the availability of stimulants online, which requires less outside stimulants such as interaction and body-to-body sociability. Not only does mobile technology decrease social isolation it seems that internet usage can cause feelings of loneliness and busyness as well.

Read the full manuscript: Benefits of Biophilic Design Explored Through Human Ecology

Mobile Technology: Its Effect on Face-to-Face Communication and Interpersonal Interaction

Lucas Lengacher, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/lengacher.html

Abstract: Technology has influenced the world in many positive ways. I researched and examined the question of how technology effects communication? Technology is great for communication when it comes to connecting with family and friends who live far away. But what are the effects of say: Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, text messaging, etc. on every day face-to-face conversation? This paper explores the possibility of how increased exposure to communicating pathways may actually lessen communication. Mobile technology is anything one can do on phones. Due to smartphones and the availability of them one can access the internet, therefore being able to do countless things on their phones. So the research is inclusive to texting or voice calls, but also includes the countless applications one can download on a phone. Unfortunately, research shows that mobile technology is affecting communication in a negative way when it comes to sociability and face-to-face communication. Researchers have found that mobile technology can decrease communication and intimacy. The results too many research studies seem to point out is that mobile technology lessens social interaction and face-to-face communication do to the availability of stimulants online, which requires less outside stimulants such as interaction and body-to-body sociability. Not only does mobile technology decrease social isolation it seems that internet usage can cause feelings of loneliness and busyness as well.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/lengacher.html

Religion’s Effect on Gender Roles

Maris Headrick, Madison Johnson, Megan Reynolds, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/headrick.html

Abstract: This research on Christianity as a religion effects on gender roles and gender stereotypes details a survey performed at Huntington University. With direct correlation between the historical, cultural, and economic ties from region to gender roles this research. While correlation is present, it is not as high of correlation expected.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/headrick.html

Adult Sibling Relationships: College Students Perspective

Katelyn M. Hughes, Abel Gitimu Waithaka*, Youngstown State University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/hughes.html

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence adult sibling relationships from college students’ perspectives. Data were collected from 211 adult students, 153 female and 58 male participants. The participants completed two scales: ARQ-S scale with 47 items and the Adult Attachment (AA) Scale with 18 items. There was a significant difference in sibling relationships on high and low attachment and also on participant’s parental marital status, married or divorced parents.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/hughes.html