Category Archives: Volume 9

Correlates of Protein Intake Among Community Dwelling Older Adults

Meredith E. Sargent and Kelly L. Evola, G. Kevin Randall*, Jeannette Davidson*, Bradley University

Full mauscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v9/sargent.html

Abstract: Nutritional recommendations, BMI, and quality of life may be uniquely related in a population of older adults. The current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for dietary protein in older adults is 0.8 g/ kg of body weight per day, but controversy exists as to whether this amount is adequate. Research findings suggest that the protein turnover rate decreases by the age of 70, resulting in a greater need for protein by older adults. In addition, nutritional studies have suggested a lower mortality rate is associated with overweight BMI ranges in older adults. Last, a relationship between nutritional risk and quality of life has been found in community living elderly adults. To date no studies have been found investigating the relationship between protein intake and various physical and mental health correlates, such as quality of life among community dwelling older adults. Using data collected from a convenience sample of this population, who indicated protein intake of 0.8 -1.6 g/kg and BMIs of 25 and over, we investigated the relationship between protein intake, self-rated physical health, and life regard; analyses controlled for age, sex, and marital status.Results from a hierarchical regression analysis showed that a measure of life regard significantly and positively contributed to Protein Intake. This final model explained 49 percent of the variance.

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Barriers to Participation in Clinical Trials among Hispanic Cancer Patients

Luis E. Gonzalez, Gwendolyn P. Quinn*, Jessica McIntyre*, University of South Florida

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/gonzalez.html

Abstract Previous research indicates Hispanic cancer patients are severely underrepresented in cancer clinical trials. This study aimed to understand some of the main barriers that may prevent Hispanic cancer patients from participating in clinical trials. A total of 36 Hispanic cancer patients and their caregivers participated in a focus group either in Tampa, Florida or Ponce, Puerto Rico to discuss knowledge of clinical trials. Lack of knowledge about clinical trials, fears, psychological issues, and financial burden were identified by cancer patients and caregivers as major barriers to participation.

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The Building Blocks of Designing Early Childhood Educational Environments

Jaclynn Shaw, Kansas State University

Full report: www.kon.org/urc/v9/shaw.html

Abstract: Early childhood educational (ECE) facilities overwhelmingly impact their occupants; the design of these facilities, therefore, cannot be understated as young children often spend up to 12,500 hours of their juvenile lives in child development centers (Day, 1983; Vaughan, 2007). An analysis of the literature and research on ECE reveals differences in the layout of preschool, kindergarten, and first grade classrooms. This paper demonstrates how the design of the physical environment should evolve to respond to the developmental needs of preschool, kindergarten, and first grade children. Both literature and research on ECE environments have been used to create a schematic analysis that informs designers of particular design implications used to create a physical space successful in fostering and enhancing positive child development and effective learning.

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Microbial Growth in Ground Beef During Different Methods of Thawing

Saba Zahid, Theodore Fleming*, G. Kevin Randall*, Bradley University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/zahid.html

Abstract Consumer safety has now become a pressing issue with recent illnesses and food recalls due to elevated microbiological contamination of a variety of different foods. Although there are many different steps in the handling and processing continuum that expose the food supply to potential microbial exposure and contamination, consumers can limit their risk for food-borne illness by practicing safe food handling practices in their homes. In this study, we examined several commonly used thawing methods and their impact on microbial growth.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thawing methods on microbial growth in ground beef. Microbial growth was evaluated during a six-hour thaw period using three different thawing methods: refrigerator, room temperature, and standing water bath. Beef maintained in the freezer was used as a control. Bacterial counts per gram of beef were determined at one-hour intervals using a viable count method.

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No Child Left Behind in Puerto Rico: How Does the No Child Left Behind Act Affect Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Students from Low-Income Communities

Emely E. Medina-Rodríguez, University of Puerto Rico, Leonard Ramirez*, University of Illinois at Chicago

Full Paper: www.kon.org/urc/v9/medina-rodriguez.html

Abstract The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was created in 2001 to close the achievement gap between middle class White students and low-income minority students in the U.S. NCLB is also mandated in Puerto Rico and affects Puerto Rican educational institutions. Although this law has been studied in the U.S, its impact on territories distant from the mainland is less understood. Little is known, for example, about how NCLB affects Puerto Rican teachers’ attitudes, especially those working with students from low-income communities. Qualitative research methods were chosen to encourage teachers from an intermediate school in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, to express their perspectives from their own point of view regarding the NCLB Law and related themes. The school serves students from five surrounding public housing projects, and ninety-two percent of the student body came from households with an income below the poverty level. Statistics from Puerto Rico’s Department of Education also showed that this school had not met NCLB’s Adequate Yearly Progress requirement for the past five years. A snowball sample identified seven teacher and staff members’ participants, and they were interviewed using an instrument containing 26 open-ended questions.

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Prisons of the Cruel Inner God: Neo-Panopticism in Contemporary Western Culture

Emily Taber,Western Washington University

Full Paper: www.kon.org/urc/v9/taber.html

Abstract The application of Jeremy Bentham’s (1785) panoptic concept has changed significantly with the popularization of observational technology and dataveillance. Where Bentham’s model focused on the material, the Digital Age has created new structures of power in contemporary culture, altered how observers and observed interact, and influenced both contemporary cultures of observation and the broader social structure. I analyze what has caused these transitions and traced them to five areas of social and technological change, examining how cultural values have transformed and may continue transforming into the Twenty-first Century.

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Dressed to Influence: The Effects of Experimenter Dress on Participant Compliance

Anastacia E. Damon,
Arineh Sarkissian,
Cherrie Y. Cotilier,
Nicole M. Staben,
Jaime M. Lee,
Robert J. Youmans,
California State University, Northridge

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v9/damon.html

Abstract Some psychologists believe that, in addition to any independent variable being tested, the characteristics of the experimenter who is conducting the study can influence how participants will perform during experiments, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as experimenter bias. Participants in this experiment consisted of 67 California State University, Northridge students. In this double-blind procedure, participants were randomly assigned to follow directions from either a casually or professionally-dressed experimenter. The authors predicted that participants in the professionally dressed condition would follow directions more accurately, but results indicated that participants who received directions from a casual experimenter were more compliant. It may be that students follow directions more accurately when those directions are given by someone who is dressed more similar to themselves.

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The Darker Side of Counterfactual Thinking: An Analysis of Inaction Inertia and Gambling

Sarah C. Atchley, Hendrix College

Full paper: www.kon.org/v9/atchley2.html

Abstract The current research is a literature review of inaction inertia, which is the resulting inaction due to certain cognitive processes, specifically counterfactual thinking or looking back over one’s life to determine how events could have turned out differently if a different course of action was taken. Previous research indicates that counterfactual thinking can have negative consequences such as inaction inertia, gambling, and self-handicapping.

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Supportive Learning Environments for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Kristen Henriksen, Migette L. Kaup*, Kansas State University

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v9/henriksen.html

Abstract: It has been consistently documented that children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience difficulty managing the sensory environment due to symptoms and behaviors associated with the disease. Existing literature is examined in order to uncover variables of the built environment that are known to positively or negatively affect the symptoms and behaviors of children diagnosed with ASD. The majority of the existing literature focuses on sensory and spatial issues, while the occurrence of conflicting recommendations serves to magnify the genuine complexity of the disorder. Suggested programming requirements and spatial layouts will aid the interior designer to a certain degree, but due to the scarcity of research that informs the interior designer specifically, new research is conducted in this paper and is combined with data from existing literature to form a matrix of specific design considerations. This will allow designers to utilize the considerations more readily and answer the calling for adaptable, flexible, and thoughtful universal design solutions in the learning environments of children with ASD.

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The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Socioeconomic Status on Perceived Physical Health

Rania Kaoukis,
Phuong T. Do*,
Purdue University Calumet

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/kaoukis.html

Abstract: Biocultural evolution suggests that humans place a stronger emphasis on socioemotional processes than biological factors in regard to sexual selection. Substantial evidence from past studies reinforces the proposition that mating preferences have a basis in one’s health and well-being. The indication that biological entities prefer to pass on favorable genes to their offspring can be traced back to Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Consistent findings have been observed regarding the influence of development on facial symmetry. Research suggests that facial symmetry reflects developmental stability, indicating how successful one’s genes are in shaping a symmetric organism despite environmental assaults. In line with previous research, the current research proposal examined the effect of facial symmetry (i.e., a biological process) and socioeconomic status (i.e., a socioemotional process) on judgment of perceived health. It was hypothesized that women would judge a man’s health according to his facial features and annual income. Stimuli consisted of individual faces that were separated into two distinct groups based on the degrees of fluctuating asymmetry and then were counterbalanced with two levels of socioeconomic status (i.e., low and high income). Findings indicated the relative importance of both biological and socioeconomic processes in perceived health. Although the hypothetical results are preliminary, these findings suggest practical applications for understanding the biocultural evolutionary process and characteristics of natural selection in mankind.

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