Masoud Bahrami, Islamic Azad University, Iran
Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/bahrami.html
Abstract This study aimed at examining the influence of task-based activities (four specific types of tasks: matching, form-filling, labeling, and selecting) on listening ability in students of English as a foreign language and to identify if there was any correspondence between task type and students’ language proficiency level. Ninety senior EFL learners of Sadra English Institute in Dorood participated in this study. The sources of data for this quasi-experimental study included two task-based tests of listening comprehension and a test of language proficiency. Analysis of the findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between the three tasks of “matching, labeling, and form-filling” on the one hand and listening comprehension on the other. However, no such relationship was observed between the task of “selecting” and listening comprehension. Moreover, the results of the participants’ performance on each task at each level of language proficiency showed that among the four tasks of the study only the “selecting” task did not correspond with the three levels of language proficiency. The participants, according to the results of the post-test, showed no improvement over the task of “selecting”.
Jenna Osseck, Joan Scacciaferro, Deirdra Frausto, Carol Cox*, Truman State University
Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/osseck.html
Abstract A sample of 70 white-collar and blue-collar employees participated in a one hour stress management training workshops about the definition and causes of stress, work-related stress, strategies for managing stress, and creation of a personal stress management action plan. The stress management workshop knowledge test was administered pre- and post-intervention to analyze the causes and signals of stress, ways to manage stressful situations, and strategies for managing stress.
Results indicated that there was a significant increase in post-test mean knowledge scores as a result of the intervention. It seems that a brief workplace stress management education workshop could improve stress prevention knowledge in both blue- and white-collar employees.
Ian B. Nahmias, Scott W. Plunkett*, California State University, Northridge
Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/nahmias.html
Abstract Immigrant adolescents use coping strategies to deal with acculturative and personal stress. Yet, little is known about where these coping strategies emerge. The purpose of this study was to identify whether perceived parental behaviors and neighborhood qualities related to the coping strategies used by adolescents from immigrant families. Self-report data were collected from 729 adolescents from immigrant families in one Los Angeles school. Multiple regressions indicated (a) girls reported higher family support and social support in coping than boys; (b) parental warmth was significantly and positively related to family support and social support, while negatively related to ventilating feelings and substance use coping; (c) parental harshness was positively related to social support, ventilating feelings, and substance use coping; and (d) neighborhood stressors were related to higher ventilating feelings and substance use coping.
Christine Hunter, Patricia K. Ravert*, Brigham Young University
Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v9/hunter.html
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions regarding learning outcomes developed during simulation experience throughout the nursing program. Students from four different semesters completed surveys following their simulation experience to report their perceptions of learning outcomes (improving communication, increasing nursing skills, understanding classroom material, developing critical thinking, and facilitating teamwork). Results indicated that each semester, students rated increasing nursing skills and developing critical thinking as two of the top three learning outcomes obtained during simulation experiences. Students perceived that developing the learning outcome of facilitating teamwork increased more in later semesters. Improving communication and understanding classroom material were not rated as frequently.
Tiana Keith, East Carolina University
Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v9/keith.html
Abstract Rates of depression in college students are at an all time high. Millions of emerging adults are experiencing symptoms that are making daily routines problematic. These symptoms may include, but are not limited to, drowsiness, loss of appetite, sense of hopelessness, apathy, and irritability. Long periods of suffering through such feelings are non-conducive to dealing with the demands of college life. The causes of depression are as unique as the individual that experiences the disorder. For many students, however, depression can be attributed to stressors such as academic pressure, inadequate social adaptation, inadequate sleep, and the stress of the overall transition to college life. Reports show an inequality of depressive symptoms experienced by male and female students for unknown reasons, but assumptions have been made. Students who suffer from depression risk serious health problems if positive steps are not made to help with their symptoms. It is not uncommon for the traditional student age group to resort to substance abuse and other risky behaviors to escape depressive symptoms. In many cases students experience eating disorders, and others choose suicide. With an increasing demand for positive coping mechanisms, universities have made an effort to offer free psychological services to students on their campuses. Although attempts have been made, students are underutilizing the resources. Students and universities must work together to provide an effective way to reduce depression in college students.
John Wayland, University of Wales, Newport
Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/wayland.html
Abstract Circadian rhythms exert various physiological influences that encourage sleep. However, the relationship between temperature, sex, and sleep is complex. This study examined the relationship between these factors using an online questionnaire. Participants consisted of 83 females and 47 males who rated their temperature and length of sleep. Results indicated differences between and within sexes but found that neither temperature nor the interaction between these factors influenced the length of sleep that participants recorded. Explanations suggest that the subjective nature of the experiment may have influenced the result. Consideration is therefore given to future integration of subjective responses alongside readings of temperature. Additionally, a longitudinal study is suggested to assess temperature change over a substantial period of development.
Kelly Tian, University of Chicago
Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v9/tian.html
Abstract: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 made a profound impact on American society, affecting the targeted Chinese people and as well as Caucasians. Because much of what happens in the past influences the present and future, it is vital to understand the motives for the Act and how it affects others. Perhaps by learning about previous difficulties one can draw conclusions on how to lead more productive and harmonious lives in the future.
Sarah Levant, Temple University
Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v9/levant.html
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the premature death and dynamics of Ben Himmelstein in his communities. Conducted in an autoethnographic writing style, questionnaires were gathered through the social networking site, Facebook, giving access to several of Ben’s different communities. Additionally, data were collected by phone and in-person interviews. Results reflected that relationships and perspectives vary with every individual, and relationships with community members and ourselves define who we are.
Morteza Bakhtiarvand, Payame Noor University of Andimeshk (PNU), Iran
Somaye Adinevand, Education Department of Andimeshk, Iran
Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/Bakhtiarvand.html
Abstract The present study investigated the effect of cultural familiarity in improving Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language) learners’ listening comprehension. To achieve this purpose, a listening comprehension test was administered to three hundred language learners; ultimately one hundred and twenty pre-intermediate language learners were selected and randomly assigned to four groups. The same pre-test was administered to the four groups before any treatment lesson. During the experiment, Group A had exposure to target culture texts in-and out-side the classroom. The participants in Group B had exposure to international target culture texts in-and out-side the classroom. The participants in Group C had exposure to source culture texts in-and out-side the classroom. The participants in Group D had only exposure to culture free texts in-and-out side the classroom. At the end of the experiment, four groups took a post-test which was the same as pre-test to see whether or not there were changes regarding their listening proficiency. The results of the posttest showed that the four groups performed differently on the posttest, which was indicative of the fact that greater familiarity to specific culturally-oriented language listening material promoted the Iranian EFL learners’ listening proficiency.
Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/hong.html
Abstract: Understanding the education, beliefs, and practices of Peking University students could potentially help with designing pertinent and effective sexual and reproductive health (SRH) curricula, educating the public about sexual minorities, and removing barriers to accessing SRH services. After a review of The Chinese Journal of Human Sexuality, it was evident that college students’ sources of SRH knowledge, beliefs, and practices were not thoroughly examined within the last year in SRH research. The present study is the first to examine SRH educational resources and preferences of Peking University students, the benefits of Peking University courses on SRH, Peking University student perceptions about sexual minorities, and their barriers to accessing SRH services. A survey was given to 176 Peking University students on SRH, and Excel graphs were compiled to assess their responses. The survey suggested that there are better methods for disseminating information, weak SRH knowledge, little acceptance of sexual minorities, and few attempts to access SRH services. One of the most significant findings included the inaccurate perception of HIV transmission. Eighty-three percent of participants could not answer a particular question about HIV transmission correctly (Graph 10). Also, there was a largely negative perception of HIV-positive people. An overwhelming majority, 71 percent, of participants reported that if they discovered their friend was HIV-positive, it would have a slightly or extremely negative impact on their friendship (Graph 20). These results lend support to the idea that more SRH education is needed to create a more tolerant and informed population of Peking University students.