Category Archives: Volume 8

The Relationship Between Credit Load and Depression

Joel A. Makin, Cassie R. Mansheim, Cassandra N. Dyar,
Huntington University

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/makin.html

Abstract This study explored the relationship between credit load and depression among full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18-24 at a Midwest university. It was predicted that those with a higher credit load would score higher on the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (Zung, 1965). The number of credits for the past school year and the score from the Zung scale were compared, and the correlation between credit load and depression were measured using the Pearson r. Using a .05 level of significance and 45 degrees of freedom, the resultant r was -0.325, which was then compared to a critical value of 0.288. The findings were statistically significant. Contrary to prior research and expectations, a negative correlation was found.

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Use of a Focus Group of Chariton County Citizens to Investigate Opinions, Attitudes, and Recommendations for the Chariton County Oral Health Program

Whitney Trusty, Courtney Perrachione, Truman State University

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/trusty.html

Abstract The purpose of this study was to conduct two focus groups to investigate the opinions, attitudes, and recommendations for improvement of the Oral Health Program in Chariton County, Missouri. A focus group interview guide included questions about each participant’s perceptions of the Chariton County Oral Health Program Initiative and how the program might be improved over time.
“Affordability” and “access” were repeatedly reported as important factors in whether or not a Chariton County citizen would seek oral healthcare. Chariton County faces challenges similar to those of other communities when attempting to incorporate a dental health program into the area.

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“When it is my turn, there will be no one to bury me. ” Ideology, Social Mobility, and Individual Agency in the Cambodian Genocide

Will Plowright
University of British Columbia

Full paper: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/plowright.html

Abstract Children and youths were the primary vehicle to enact the Khmer Rouge’s campaign of genocide. Explanations for the involvement of people on an individual level often assert the primary role of ideology. However, by analyzing primary accounts and contrasting them with known contextual factors from the time, it can be shown that a lack of social mobility and fear of the regime obliterated the role of ideology, restricted individual agency, and forced youths and children to enact the regime’s policies.

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Understanding Ethnic Disparities in Contraceptive Use: The Mediating Role of Attitudes

Sarah K. Christman,Tina Zawacki*, University of Texas at San Antonio

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v9/christman.html

Abstract The purpose of the current study was to investigate ethnic differences in contraceptive use and investigate variables that may explain these differences. An ethnically diverse sample of female college students completed a 15-minute survey that included scales measuring contraceptive use and pregnancy, contraceptive, and sexual attitudes. Compared to non-Latina participants, Latina participants reported lower rates of contraceptive use. Mediation analyses found that the ethnic differences in contraceptive use were partially explained by ethnic differences in comfort with sexual communication and perceived convenience of contraception. These findings hold implications for improving unintended pregnancy prevention programs.

Athletic Participation Limitations of the Down’s Syndrome Population

Heather L. Orndorff
California University of Pennsylvania

Full paper: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/orndorff.html

Abstract The Special Olympics is a sporting event that has been designed for people with intellectual disabilities including Down’s syndrome. Besides having a different body structure, these special population athletes are unable to perform to the capabilities of an individual without an intellectual disability. Thus they are unique athletes and require different management of athletic injuries and athletic participation from athletic trainers. The purpose of this paper was to state behavioral and cognitive capabilities, atlantoaxial and cervical abnormalities, exercise capacities, and cardiac disease of the Down’s syndrome population and how they affect exercise.

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Finding Everything in the Space of Emptiness

Rose Sexton, Leda Cempellin*
South Dakota State University

Full paper: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/sexton.html

Where Nothing has Happened Like a pair of enormous contact lenses, two giant concave stainless steel disks stare at each other across a vacant hallway. At 200 cm, they are taller than a man. Modest industrial lights illuminate the vast chamber where they are attached to the blank concrete ceiling. No shadows offer definition to this space. Instead blank white walls descend to the immaculate concrete floor. The state is reminiscent of a snowstorm and the white out conditions after which this exhibition is named. We have all seen the effect of placing two mirrors opposite to one another. An endless repetition of images is cast one inside the other into the eternity of either surface. However, by simply curving the surface of the mirrors, such as Anish Kapoor has in his installation, Double Mirror (Fig 1: http://www.studio-international.co.uk/studio-images/kapoor/3b.asp), something even more incredible and unexpected occurs upon the polished surfaces: an apparent lack of reflection. Waves of the visual spectrum are bounced off each surface both away from the opposite mirror, away from the eye of the viewer. Stand inside the double mirror. Step into the tension between them. Look up, down, left, right into the broad mirrors and be met with nothing at all!

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A Review of the Relationship Between Cannabis Use and Affective Disorders

Thomas Hugh Richardson
University of Bath

Full paper: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/bath.html

Abstract This paper examines the relationship between cannabis use and the affective disorders of depression, bipolar disorder, and mania. The literature is reviewed, examining both sides of the debate. The literature suggests that cannabis is most strongly related to depression in heavy use, in particular in adolescents. Cannabis may be used to self-medicate depressive symptoms, though there is little evidence that this is effective. Whilst cannabis may also be used for self-medication in bipolar disorder, it has a number of effects on the emergence, presentation, treatment, and prognosis of the illness. Cannabis use may also increase sub-clinical manic symptoms in non-clinical populations. Future research is then suggested to resolve some of the discrepancies in the literature.

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The Effects of Working Mothers on Sibling Rivalry

Anna Tsang
The Master's College

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/tsang.html

Abstract Research suggests “links between maternal management styles and sibling relationship quality have been established” (Howe, Fiorentino, & Gariepty, 2003, p. 187). The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not sibling rivalry is affected by working mothers. The survey instrument, which requested demographic information in addition to six Likert-type scale questions, was distributed to students at the University of California, Davis, and The Master's College in Santa Clarita, CA, during the spring of 2008. STATPAK was employed to examine the data and the One-Dimensional Chi-square test was used for data analysis. All but one of the responses met the level of significance in the results. The conclusions of this research are such that they suggest that the relationship between siblings appears to be a multi-faceted relationship influenced by various factors.

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Interracial Interaction of College Students from High School to College and their Perceptions of Campus

Paul Smith, Alicia M. Helion*, Alan K. Mock*
Lakeland College, Manitowoc, Wisconsin

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/smith.html

Abstract This research explored the relationship between interracial interactions of students from high school to college. College students’ perception of their campus was also measured. The benefits of interracial interaction for college students are discussed.

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Providing Orphan Care Systems in Developing Countries

Rebekka Kelly
The Master’s College

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/kelly.html

Abstract Research communicates that orphans, particularly in developing countries, have a significantly greater tendency towards symptoms related to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. It is strongly suggested that the type of care orphans receive impacts the development of the orphan. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the care system received by orphans significantly affects their socioemotional development. A survey using a four point Likert-attitudinal scale for measuring participant responses was distributed to students attending Preparation for Global Outreach (which is a required class for those preparing to go on a short-term missions trip) at the Master’s College. The survey results indicate an agreement with current research suggesting that care systems indeed impact the socioemotional progress of orphans in developing countries. It can be concluded that the symptoms generated by traumatic circumstances undergone by orphans can be alleviated in varying degrees based on the care system.

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