Category Archives: Volume 8

Special Edition: Historical Analysis of the American Civil Liberties Union

Leigh Ann Wheeler, Associate Professor, Binghamton University
Full article: http://www.kon.org/urc/aclu/intro.html
Introduction:
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has played a central role in the development of civil liberties jurisprudence, but it has also shaped popular understandings of civil liberties through its public advocacy, behind-the-scenes pressure on public officials, and, of course, legal work. These two papers—Randy Kamcza’s on the ACLU’s position on the adoption of “In God We Trust” as an official United States motto in the 1950’s and Brandon Scribner’s on the ACLU’s involvement in protests against the Vietnam War in the 1960’s—show us some of the many ways that the ACLU tried to shape law, public policy, and public opinion on some of the most important issues of yesterday and today. Unlike most scholarship on the ACLU, these papers were written by two young researchers who approached their work with no prior experience with the ACLU. Thus, in contrast to the ACLU’s most well-known biographers—Samuel Walker, author of the scholarly, In Defense of American Liberties: A History of the ACLU (1990) and William Donohue, author of the more polemical book, The Politics of the American Civil Liberties Union (1985) to cite just two examples)—Kamcza and Scribner were neither members nor detractors of the organization before they began their work.

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Parent’s Depression and Its Relation to Adolescent Suicide Attempts

Christina Solomon, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/solomon.html

Abstract There is current research that shows the relation between parent psychopathology along with mental health outcomes in adolescents. This study examined the relationship between parents’ depression and adolescent suicide attempts. The hypothesis was that adolescents with multiple suicide attempts would have parents who are more depressed than adolescents with none or one suicide attempt. There were a total of 448 adolescents who were in a psychiatric hospital at a university or private facility. Age, race/ethnicity, and income of the sample are given. The results showed that there was not a strong relationship between parent depression and youth suicide attempts. Further research must be conducted to show the significance of parent depression on adolescent suicide attempts.

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Post-Divorce Living Conditions and Child Maturation

Jessica Crabb, The Master's College

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/crabb.html

Abstract Research suggests that the impacts of divorce are far reaching because the nature of divorce changes the family unit and creates new transition points in the life course of the individuals involved. A review of the literature indicated that many changes occur in the lives of parents and children after divorce, including negative changes such as high levels of stress for parents and children, emotional peaks and plummets, regressive behaviors in children, and alteration/strain in the relationships between parents and children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the living conditions in post-divorce families affect the child’s maturation. Pursuant to the treatment, data were collected through a seven-question survey instrument that employed a Likert-type scale to measure the responses of participants from the Santa Clarita and San Fernando Valleys. The survey instrument was designed to measure what changes were perceived to occur in the lives of children and parents after divorce. The results of the study indicated that the changes in the life of the parent do impact the development of the child. Those surveyed believed that the living conditions in post-divorce families will influence the maturation of a child.

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Xbox as Therapy? An Experimental Investigation into Persuasion, Catharsis and Violent Video Games

David S. Chester, Kathryn A.P. Burleson*, Warren Wilson College

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/chester.html

Abstract The hypothesis that persuasive articles that either endorse/oppose cathartic aggression (releasing psychological stress through aggressive behavior) would affect the preference to play violent video games was tested on 37 undergraduates. Participants who read articles that endorsed cathartic aggression indicated a greater preference for playing a violent video game than participants who read articles that opposed cathartic aggression. Our findings suggest that an individual’s motivation to play violent video games is moderated by their belief in the efficacy of catharsis.

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Textile Arts and Handcraft Participation in the Florida Parishes Region of Louisiana

Kristin McNab, Debbie Johnson*
Southeastern Louisiana University

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/mcnab.html

Abstract The purpose of this study was to document textile arts and handcraft participation in the Florida Parishes region of Louisiana. Six women (of varying ages) participated in the interview-survey procedure; each interview took thirty minutes to one hour to complete. The study primarily helped to gain knowledge about five important factors related to arts and handcraft. First, the questions in the interview process were specifically directed to people who sew (or perform other handcraft techniques) on a regular basis. Second, the interview collected the demographics of the women and when they started partaking in arts/handcraft activities. Third, participants were asked to summarize creative activities over time. Fourth, the interview inquired about skills for specific arts/handcraft techniques. Fifth, participants were asked about level of enjoyment of handcraft activities.

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Narcissism and Levels of Social Competence

Megan Fulton, Shalicia Holman
Huntington University

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/vurc/v8/fulton.html

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between narcissism and social competence. The population for the study consisted of undergraduate students, ranging in age from 17 to 23. The Selfism Scale (Phares & Erskine, 1984) was used to measure levels of narcissism, and the Miller Social Intimacy Scale (MSIS) (Miller & Lefcourt, 1982) was used to measure levels of social competence. Using a Pearson r, the correlation for the two variables was -0.236; thus no statistically significant correlation was found. However, when three additional responses that included missing data were added, the data were statistically significant. Further research should be conducted to determine the relationship between narcissism and social competence.

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Dual-Earner Couples: The Impact of Work-Family Spillover on Marital Satisfaction

Sarah A. Cherry, Samantha J. Sutorius,Emily L. Zimmerman
Huntington University

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/cherry.html 

Abstract The present study examined the relationship between couples’ combined hours in gainful employment and volunteer activities and marital satisfaction. It was hypothesized that dual-earner heterosexual married couples who report a greater number of hours spent in gainful employment and volunteer activities would report lower levels of marital satisfaction. The Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale (Mehrabian, 2005) was administered by convenience sampling to 30 couples in the researchers’ home churches and workplaces in Indiana. The data were analyzed using a Pearson r statistic and found that r equaled .01. No statistical significance was found; therefore the null hypothesis was retained. Future studies should consider a multi-variate approach to control for unemployment, children, and remarriage, among other confounding variables.

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The Effect of Introversion and Extraversion on the Fear of Negative Evaluation

Melissa Keighin, Kelsey Butcher, Michael Darnell
Huntington University

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/keighin.html 

Abstract The present study examined the relationship between introversion and extroversion personality types and the fear of negative evaluation. Students attending a small Christian-affiliated liberal arts university were selected through convenience sampling to complete the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. It was hypothesized that individuals who were classified as introverted would have a greater fear of negative evaluation than individuals who were classified as extraverted. The results were measured using a two-tailed independent t-test with a significance level of 0.05. The null hypothesis was rejected and a statistically significant relationship was found between introverted individuals and fear of negative evaluation. The hypothesis was supported, affirming that individuals who are assessed to be extroverted will tend to have a lower fear of negative evaluation score than those who are introverted.

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The Influence of Media Marketing on Adolescent Girls

Erica Laurén Sanders
The Master's College

Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/sanders.html 

Abstract Current research suggests that “mass media (TV, movies, magazines, internet) pervade the everyday lives of people living in Western societies, and undoubtedly one of the effects of such media saturation is the pervasive transmission of societal beauty ideals” (Tiggemann, 2006, para. 2). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of media marketing on adolescent girls from the ages of 16-19. The survey instrument was distributed to students who were enrolled at the Academy of the Canyons located in Santa Clarita, California, during the spring of 2007. STATPAK was employed to examine the data, and the One-Dimensional Chi-square test was used for data analysis. The findings of the study yielded some significant results. The conclusions of this research suggest that media marketing does influence adolescent girls more than adolescent girls may be aware.

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The Correlation of Self-Esteem and Perceived Social Support

Allison Budd, Callie Buschman, Lucas Esch
Huntington University

Full manuscript: http:www.kon.org/urc/v8/budd.html 

Abstract The present study examined this relationship with a sample from a small liberal arts university population. It was hypothesized that as perceived social support increased, individual self-esteem would also increase. Participants were full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 and were chosen by convenience sampling. The Index of Self-Esteem (Hudson, 1982) and the Social Support Appraisals Scale (Vaux, Phillips, Holley, Thompson, Williams, & Stewart, 1986) were completed for examination. The data were analyzed using the Pearson-r coefficient. Using a .05 level of significance and 38 degrees of freedom, the r was 0.32. A correlation of 0.82 was found signifying a strong relationship between self-esteem and perceived social support. This supports the findings of Gecas (1972), Aberson (1999), and Sanaktekin and Sunar (2008). A larger, more representative sample size may be beneficial for future studies.

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