Category Archives: Volume 12

Predictors of Agoraphobia

Keshia Wagers, Jonathan S. Gore*, Eastern Kentucky University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/wagers.html

Abstract: Separation anxiety disorder, school phobia, and gender have all been implicated in being able to predict the onset of agoraphobia. This study tested the hypothesis that separation anxiety disorder, school phobia, and gender would predict unique variance in the symptoms of agoraphobia both with a close companion and when alone. One hundred students at Eastern Kentucky University completed a survey that assessed their separation anxiety disorder symptoms, school phobia symptoms experienced during childhood, and agoraphobia symptoms. Symptoms of school phobia predicted symptoms of agoraphobia when the individual was with someone, and both school phobia and separation anxiety disorder symptoms predicted symptoms of agoraphobia when the individual was alone. Gender was not a significant predictor of agoraphobia symptoms. These results imply that more factors may influence the expression of agoraphobia symptoms when an individual is alone compared to when they are with someone else.

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The Relationship between Personality Traits and Compulsive Buying

Justin R. Bivens, Jonathan S. Gore*, Sytisha Claycomb*, Eastern Kentucky University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/bivens.html

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality traits and compulsive buying. We hypothesized that extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and conscientiousness all uniquely relate to compulsive buying. Data were gathered from 369 undergraduate students who signed in to an online data gathering system and read an informed consent statement before filling out the questionnaires. The results showed that people with high levels of neuroticism and extraversion and low levels of conscientiousness tend to have more compulsive buying tendencies. Recommendations are suggested about evaluating potential consumers through a personality profile prior to the establishment of credit.

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Motives that Predict Liking and the Usage of Facebook

Ashley E. Bohnert, Jennifer L. Hughes, Lexi Pulice-Farrow, Agnes Scott College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/bohnert.html

Abstract: Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking sites. A survey of 666 users was used to determine motives that were predictors of liking and usage of Facebook. The study was based on self-reports of users through an online survey, and participants were recruited by research assistants. Two hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to examine possible motives for liking and usage of Facebook. The significant motives found for liking Facebook were keeping in touch, occupying time, sharing information, people watching, and entertainment. The significant motives found for Facebook usage included occupying time, sharing information, and venting. The findings of this study increase the understanding of motives that contribute to liking and usage of Facebook.

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The Relation Between Text Medium and Critical Reading Scores (2012)

Troy Mott, Christina Frederick*, Sierra Nevada College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/mott.html

Abstract: Post-secondary educational institutions have incorporated tablets in the educational curriculum (Woodford, 2001). To investigate how reading medium impacts critical reading ability, I performed two studies. In the first study, participants read an SAT practice test passage (Mathur, 2012) from either paper or an iPad 2 tablet. The identical passages were 949 words. Once the reading was complete, participants responded to 12 critical reading assessment questions about the passage. 116 participants completed the critical reading assessment study. A second study, a self-response survey, which examined the reading preferences and demographics (gender and age) of 115 participants was also conducted. A two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the results of the critical reading comprehension test. No significant difference was found between critical reading comprehension scores between mediums and academic standing (p = .911). The self-response survey was assessed using a chi-square analysis. There was no significant difference in preference between upper and lower division undergraduates (p = .157). Females showed a stronger preference for reading from paper than males (p = .045), and a significant preference was found among the total sample population for reading from paper over other surveyed forms of media (p < 0.001). The implications of this study are relevant to the future of education and sustainability efforts in the classroom.

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Information Comprehension: Handwritten vs. Typed Notes

Karen S. Duran and Christina M. Frederick* , Sierra Nevada College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/duran.html

Abstract: Ever advancing trends in technology, and implemented in educational settings, inspired the current study, which examined the impact, on comprehension, of note-taking method. 72 undergraduate participants, aged 18-26, viewed a projected documentary in a classroom setting and took notes for a later assessment via either paper or computer keyboard. The Mann-Whitney U (Ryan & Joiner, 2001) showed a significant difference between the test scores produced via typed notes and written notes (p = .006). Experimental and survey results converge and dictate that the best and preferred practice for student note taking is writing.

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Narcissistic Object Choice in Sexual Orientation Identity Development: A Freudian Perspective on Homosexual Identity Formation

Neil Gleason:
St. Olaf College

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/gleason.html

Abstract: Within the field of LGBT psychology, several models of homosexual orientation identity development have been proposed, and most of these models emphasize the importance of assuming a non-heterosexual identity. Freud’s theories of homosexuality are reinterpreted and integrated into these contemporary models in order to shed light on both the importance of non-heterosexual identity formation and the complications that can arise from it. Specifically, Freud’s concepts of “narcissistic object choice” and “identification” reveal how homosexual individuals can form paradoxical attachments with heterosexual objects, and how these paradoxes can be resolved through the assumption of a homosexual identity.

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The “Growing” American Dream: An Analysis of Historic Trends in Housing

Erin Cammel, Kansas State University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/cammel.html

Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to compare data found in Small Homes of Architectural Distinction by the Architects’ Small House Service Bureau in 1929 to U.S. Census data from 1930 and 1980 through 2010. In an attempt to explain the expansion of the American household, average square footage and number of bedrooms and bathrooms are correlated to average household size and income (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d., a.). All of these statistical categories have been impacted by the fluctuation of the American economy and cultural influences.

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Efficacy of Individual Nutrition Counseling on Resting Energy Expenditure, Oxygen Consumption, Fat-Free Mass, and Percentage Fat of Body Weight

Afton Kechter, Jeanette Davidson*, G. Kevin Randall*, Bradley University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/kechter.html

Abstract:There is agreement that optimizing intake of calories, protein, and carbohydrates to fuel muscle will enable athletes to train harder, but translating nutrition knowledge into nutrition behavior is problematic. The efficacy of individual nutrition counseling (INC) on nutrition behavior using objective measurements in competitive athletes has not been investigated. We therefore evaluated the influence of INC on the objective outcomes: oxygen consumption (VO2) at rest, resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry, fat-free mass (FFM), and percentage fat of body weight (PF) measured by tetra-polar bioelectrical impedance in varsity cross-country athletes at three time points of pre-during-& post-season.

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Assessing Middle School Students Need for a School Counselor

Michele R. Schmalzel, Siena Heights University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/schmalzel.html

Abstract:School counselors provide a range of services to students and can be particularly beneficial to middle school students, who are in a period of adjustment and change (Maples et al., 2005). These students may deal with difficulties such as family and or social problems, depression, and bullying. Thirty-five middle school students in a private Catholic school were surveyed to determine their feelings about school counselors. (The school currently does not have a school counselor.) In this study I examined whether students would be interested in having a school counselor available to them and what benefits they believed a school counselor could provide. The students surveyed have little experience with, or knowledge of, school counselors. Results showed the students have an interest in a school counselor and would be willing to see a counselor. Students also demonstrate an awareness that fellow students could benefit from a school counselor. 

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Across Hemispheres: Comparing Interhemispheric Transfer Times of Japanese and Americans

Andrew J. Dimond and Aaron Tiesling-Rusch, Beloit College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v12/dimond.html

Abstract:This study sought to determine whether hemispheric differences in language processing would lead to differences in interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT), the time it takes for information to be transmitted from one hemisphere of the brain to the other, between English speaking Americans and Japanese speakers in Japan. Compared to English, reading and writing Japanese requires more bilateral brain activity, and as a result may impact IHTT in a manner similar to previous findings regarding people that frequently play an instrument. We recruited participants from both the United States and Japan and used a manual response reaction time task to estimate the participants’ IHTT. We found that there was no cross-cultural difference in the IHTT of American and Japanese participants, which indicates the possibility that the results from other IHTT studies, which only used Americans, may be generalizable to other national groups.

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