Category Archives: Volume 10

Can Stereotypes About Your Age-Related Abilities Impact Your Cognitive Performance? The Influence of Stereotype Threat on First Year College Students and the Elderly

Ian Gackowski, Christine Merola, Julie E. Yonker, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/gackowski.html

Abstract Stereotype threat is activated in contexts where individuals who are members of negatively stereotyped groups are conscious of the content of those stereotypes, and consequently their performance may be negatively affected (e.g., Croizet & Claire, 1998; Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999; Chasteen & Bhattacharyya, 2005). However, encouragement has been shown to combat the effects of stereotype threat (Hess, Auman, Colcombe, & Rahhal, 2003; Good, 2003). This study investigated whether an implicit age related negative perception (stereotype threat) or implicit encouragement would impact cognitive task performance of both first year college students and older adults. First year college students did not demonstrate cognitive performance effects for either stereotype threat or encouragement, however, older adults responded with better performance on a mental rotation task with encouragement.

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The Effects of Presentation Style on Memory and Change-Blindness Sensitivity

Rachael A. Divine, Mariam V. Balasanyan, Jennifer M. Vuong, Justin C. Latham, Robert J. Youmans*, California State University, Northridge

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/divine.html

Abstract Emotional regulation has become an important variable in understanding the effect emotions may have on attention and learning. In this study, 58 undergraduate students at California State University, Northridge were randomly assigned to watch one of two versions of an educational video. The information presented was identical in both versions of the educational video, but the presenter was asked to be more aggressive in one version of the presentation, and more neutral in the other. The study measured how well participants learned from each version of the video, and also how likely they were to notice surprising changes in background objects that were carefully created by the experimenters via video editing. Results indicated that the aggressive presentation had a negative effect on participants’ ability to detect changes, but no effect on their memory for the semantic content of the video.

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Beverage Consumption of College Students: Factors that Influence Their Choices

Rachel Grumbine, Ellen Mills, Dr. Nina Collins*, Dr. G. Kevin Randall*, Bradley University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/grumbine.html

Abstract Beverage consumption is a major source of energy; intake varies depending on demographics, availability, and personal and behavioral influences (Storey, Forshee, & Anderson, 2006). To date no studies were found investigating the milk and soda consumption behavior of college students and the factors influencing their choices relative to such consumption. Based on Martin and Martin’s (2002) Developmental Adaptation Model, this study employed hierarchical regression and path mediation analyses to examine distal (family consumption) and proximal factors that influenced beverage consumption among college students. The results of this research found the three most influential factors that affect amount of milk consumption by college students are taste, family consumption, and perceived nutritional value; the most influential factors for soda consumption was taste, frequency of eating out, and perceived negative effect on dental caries.

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Would You Buy That Church? A Study of the Branding of Denominations

Danielle Gargiulo, Kirby Gowen, Shar’Niese Miller, Josann Schoeff, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/gargiulo.html

Abstract This study examined whether individuals treat denominations like product brands. It was hypothesized that people would be more loyal to a brand than to their church. Thirty college professors, 20 healthcare workers from Family Practice and Associates (a prestigious healthcare facility in Huntington), and 97 college juniors and seniors from Huntington University (a Midwestern Christian college) were selected at random. They were asked to complete the “Denominational Loyalty Assessment,” which is a survey comprised of multiple studies: a three year study of churches by the Search Institute (1990), a brand study by R. Bennett and S. Rundle-Thiele (2000), and a study done by the Pew Research Group (personal communication, February 21, 2011). The results were then analyzed using the Pearson r correlation. This study found that generational difference played a role in the way people treated their denomination.

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Effect of an Educational Workshop on Heart Disease Prevention Knowledge of Employees in Rural, Northeast Missouri: A Pilot Study

Megan Temme, Samantha Goode, Dierdra Fausto, Jonathan Jones,
Truman State University, Kirksville, MO

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/temme.html

Abstract Adult employees participated in an hour-long heart attack prevention workshop that covered the causes of heart attacks, prevention techniques including proper diet and exercise regimens, and symptoms and warning signs of a heart attack. Prior to and immediately following each workshop, the participants completed a heart attack prevention knowledge test. Results indicated that the mean knowledge post-test score for all participants was significantly higher than their mean knowledge pre-test score. It seems that a brief workplace heart attack prevention workshop could improve knowledge of employees in different types of work settings.

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The Effects of Divorce on the Perception of Cohabitation

Whitney Hacker, Berea College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/hacker.html

Abstract This study examines the relationship between a college students’ experience with the divorce of a parent or guardian and their perception of cohabitation. Results of this study show that a majority of students who have experienced parental divorce feel that cohabitation is circumstantial, as opposed to being purely positive or negative. However, a majority of those students who have negative feelings toward cohabitation are also those students who have not experienced the divorce of a parent. Although intervening variables may have existed, the study supported the position that college students who have experienced the divorce of a parent have a different perception of cohabitation than college students who have not experienced the divorce of a parent.

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Birth Order and Impact on College Major Choice

Jennifer Cramer, Ashley Dilling, Brittney Hockemeyer, Joshua Nicholson, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/cramer.html

Abstract This study examines the correlation of birth order and choice of college major. It was hypothesized that ones position of birth within the family has an impact on college major choice. Participants were juniors and seniors from a small liberal arts university located in the Midwest. These participants completed a web-based survey consisting of questions about family constellations and college information. We used a χ² test to analyze the data. After collecting and analyzing the data using several crosstabulations, we were unable to support our hypothesis.

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Impostor Phenomenon and Females’ Self-Esteem, GPA, and Relationship with Mother

Melissa R. Garwick, Annalise C. Ford, Jennifer L. Hughes*, Agnes Scott College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/garwick.html

Abstract The Impostor Phenomenon (IP) has been found mainly in high-achieving women in academic and career fields. Clance and Imes (1978) were the first researchers to identify this phenomenon. For this study, we examined self-esteem levels, grade point average (GPA), and participants’ relationship with their mother. We collected data using an Internet survey taken by 401 female undergraduate and graduate students whose ages ranged from 17 to 42. As hypothesized, females’ relationship with their mother was inversely related to their IP score. However, self-esteem and GPA were not significantly related to females’ IP score. These findings caution mothers to be careful about how they develop their relationship with their daughters.

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A Study of Attendees’ Motivations: Oxford Film Festival

Taylor Thomas, Young Hoon Kim*

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/thomas.html

Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations of attendees at the Oxford Film Festival, held in Oxford, MS. One hundred nine surveys were collected, and factor analysis was used to group 10 individual motivators into 3 factors. The three factors were Togetherness in Good Environments, Money, and Film Itself.

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The Effects of Pre-Bedtime Routine on Sleep

Aubrey Garner, Julie Manges, Raquel Anderson, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/garner.html

Abstract Anecdotal evidence shows that activities in preparation for sleep affect certain characteristics of sleep, such as duration and quality. This study tests this evidence. According to the literature, when asking the question of whether pre-bedtime routine affects sleep characteristics, particularly of college students and professors, it was hypothesized that a structured pre-bedtime routine positively affects sleep characteristics. A web-based survey was distributed to college students and college professors to look into structure of pre-bedtime routine and sleep quality. Two Pearson r correlations and two t-tests were used to analyze the data. After completion of this study, there was no significance found between the variables of pre-bedtime routine and sleep characteristics.

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