Category Archives: Volume 10

Referential Communication in Bilingual and Monolingual Children

Lorraine M. Rindahl, Marie A. Stadler*, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/rindahl.html

Abstract The purpose of this project was to discover differences in the referential communication skills of bilingual and monolingual children. The children participated in two barrier tasks, one in which each child followed verbal directions and one in which they gave verbal directions, each without benefit of visual cues. Differences were found between the two groups of children with the monolingual children outperforming the bilingual children with receiving and giving verbal directions, even though the bilingual children were considered fluent in English. 

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Gender Representation in a Selection of Children’s Picture Books: A Skewed Ratio of Male to Female Characters?

Heather MacArthur, Carmen Poulin*, University of Brunswick

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/macarthur.html

Abstract The present research investigates the ratio of male to female characters in a selection of 92 children’s picture books chosen at random from the local library of a small Atlantic Canadian city. Results indicate that, consistent with past findings, male characters are depicted more often than female characters in the titles, cover illustrations, main characters, and page illustrations of the sample. When the results are broken down, however, it is apparent that human male and human female characters are depicted relatively equally, while male animals are represented significantly more often than female animals. Reasons for these findings and the implications for young readers are discussed. 

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A Holistic Approach to Understanding Military TBIs: A Multidisciplinary Perspective

Stephanie L. Summers, Christie Chung*, Mills College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/summers.html

Abstract This paper reviews the major findings and controversies relevant to military-related Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) from various disciplines (mainly psychology, medicine, and neuroscience). The aim is to aid readers in examining the topic from a multidisciplinary perspective that takes into consideration the interconnection of the various domains of functioning affected by a military TBI in order to better understand the complicated challenges faced by military personnel who are returning to our communities with such injuries. I will begin by briefly defining TBI and explaining how a TBI may occur, followed by a review of studies regarding biopsychosocial outcomes that represent the most commonly noted changes, complications, and challenges an individual with a military TBI may face. Then, the implications of the research are presented, the connections that can be made between them, and the new directions the research community should pursue in order to further our understanding of the military TBIs on all levels of functioning and from injury to outcome.

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Professor-Student Interactions and Student Participation: Comparing the Effects of Body Language and Sex on Classroom Participation

Luke Brenneman, Wes Bass, Jordan Peterson, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/brenneman.html

Abstract Despite extensive research and widely-held belief supporting the fact that educators call on males more than females in the classroom, the sex of students may overshadow the importance of the body language typical of each sex in classroom interactions between educators and students. This study sought to explore how significantly body language influences professor-student interactions through the use of classroom observation and self-reported surveys at a small Midwestern university. Results of both observation and surveys were analyzed primarily by using frequencies and percentages in order to measure the extent to which the independent variable, body language and sex of students, is correlated to the dependent variable, student participation and professors’ interactions with students based on sex. Results indicated that a combination of a student being a male and exhibiting several specific positions of male-associated body language is correlated with more professor-student interactions than any other variable combination. When combined with data about females displaying certain elements of each sex’s body language, results strongly suggested that a combination of sex and sex-associated body language determine frequency and quality of educator-student interactions.

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Russian Demographics: The Role of the Collapse of the Soviet Union

Christopher Hoeppler, McMaster University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v10/hoeppler.html

Abstract Communism is a political ideal that is often viewed negatively by democratic societies. Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian Federation has experienced a rising mortality rate. It is clear that the political turmoil of the country played a key role in the eventual demographics of Russia. Coinciding with the onset of democracy a number of factors including economics, lifestye, healthcare, and disease incidence have contributed to the decline in population. The current demographic state, underlying causes, and next steps will be explored within the paper.

Introduction The Russian Federation experienced a surge in death rates of almost 40 percent since 1992, with numbers rising from 11 to 15.5 per thousand (Bhattacharya et al., 2011). The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought with it many social, political, and economic changes that continue to affect Russia to this day. Although all countries progress along the demographic transition model differently, general trends are shown. Nonetheless, Russia appears to be experiencing a unique transition of its own. Each country experiences population decline for varying reasons, such as disease diffusion as experienced by Africa with the AIDS epidemic; others can be caused by societal advancements that lead to lower fertility rates.

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Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Treatments, and Manifestations in Several Different Ethnicities

Tyler Ben-Jacob, Binghamton University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v10/ben-jacob.html

Abstract Diabetes is a rapidly growing disease across the world. It manifests itself by unusually large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine and afflicts various populations. There are numerous causes for this disorder, and genetics often plays a role. This paper discusses types of diabetes, their causes, and the treatments. Diet, medical care, and self-management techniques play roles in dealing with diabetes.

Introduction: Diabetes is a disease caused by flawed carbohydrate metabolism and manifests itself by unusually large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine (Jacobs & Fishberg, 2002, p. 1). There are numerous causes for this disorder, some strengthened by genetic predisposition. This paper will focus on the disorder as it manifests itself in the Jewish, Latino, and African-American populations with regard to diet, access to medical care, and compliance with self-management techniques.

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The US Economic Interests in Greater Central Asia: The Development Process and the Expected Future

Binqiao Chen, Robert Tian*, Medaille College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/chen-b.html

Abstract The Greater Central Asia Region (GCAR) has been playing an important role in the trade between the East and West. In this paper, we will discuss the economic relationship between the United States and the GCAR. We will demonstrate the significances of economic connections between the two regions and analyze the economic situation and rationales that the GCAR keeps continuous and stable connection with the United States, in terms of both international and regional trading cooperation. We will also highlight the major strategic economic interests and the current economic policies of the United States. Finally, we will probe the problems that the United States needs to identify and solve.

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The College Student’s Perception of Healthful Eating

Rebekah Tsang, The Master’s College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/tsang.html

Abstract Current research suggests college students have fluctuating eating patterns and are confused about what constitutes a healthful diet. The purpose of this study was to identify the sources by which college students receive nutritional information and what constitutes the best dietary plan for maintaining a healthful lifestyle. The survey instrument used in this study measured the perceptions of college students about their practices in healthful eating and the sources they consulted to receive healthful eating information. It aligned with research that suggests college students choose to consult peers and the Internet for nutritional information over the consultation of a professional. The survey also suggested that college students understand fast food to be contradictory to a healthful lifestyle and choose to minimize their carbohydrate intake but are confused about the best dietary plan to maintain a healthful lifestyle. The results indicate that college students consult their peers and the internet over a professional with regards to healthful eating and that professionals in nutrition should find creative ways to demonstrate proper nutritional habits through the use of peer teaching and through avenues such as the Internet.

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Acknowledging Spiritual Realities – Ecological Knowledge, Cultural Connections, and Spiritual Agency in Dai Theravada Buddhism

David Matthew Hecht, Luther College

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v10/hecht.html

The Button Orchid
The Button Orchid

Introduction Each day at Manting temple begins with meditation while the sun rises and ends with meditation as the sun sets. Days are filled with quiet practice and modest work–sweeping fallen leaves with palm frond brooms, washing bamboo sitting mats in the temple courtyard, or hanging up curtains in the nunnery. Life within the temple walls feels simpler, slower–more intentional somehow. For resident Buddhist monks and nuns this is the nature of monastery life. However, on select days throughout the year, the pace of community life is adjusted to accommodate a time of festival and celebration–a time when farmers and shopkeepers take a break from their daily obligations to celebrate with food, music, dancing, and worship. The local temple halts routine daily practice to prepare and host the incoming community of Buddhist practitioners worshiping, praying, and celebrating community and connections to the ancestors and the Buddha. On the day of the biggest Dai Buddhist festival of the year, life is celebrated in full and connections to the ancestors and the Buddha are renewed.

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Special Edition: Current and Potential Practices in Athletic Training

This special edition comprises four manuscripts, and a foreword by Rebecca Hess, Ph.D., California University of Pennsylvania

Full edition: www.kon.org/urc/v10/athletic-training/index.html

The Effects of Hydration on Athletic Performance
Meredith Decker, California University of Pennsylvania

Abstract Hydration not only involves providing the body with enough fluids to function during exercise but also to prevent subsequent injuries and illnesses. By educating athletes and providing them with fluids during practices and competitions, certified Athletic Trainers’ can ensure that athletes will be properly hydrated and will not encounter further complications due to dehydration. The purpose of this paper is to give emphasis to the topic of hydration and the importance of incorporating fluids regularly into an athlete’s daily routine to ensure the best athletic performance.

Current Trends in the Assessment and Management of Sport-Related Concussions: The Result of ImPACT
Chris Parker, California University of Pennsylvania

Abstract Sport-related concussions are all too common in athletics today. Repeated concussions can lead to more serious injuries such as long-term brain damage. Difficulty in assessment and management of sport-related concussions results in premature return to play decisions by certified athletic trainers and physicians. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methods of diagnosis, the current assessment and management trends in athletic training, and the role of ImPACT concussion testing in the advancement of concussion management.

A Review of the McKenzie Method of Spinal Rehabilitation and Evaluation
Kathryn Ramsdell, Undergraduate Athletic Training Education Program, California University of Pennsylvania

Abstract Neck and lumbar dysfunctions are a common aliment worldwide. Through research, the McKenzie method of rehabilitation and spinal stabilization is a widely considered and practiced form of therapy for non-specific spinal dysfunctions. With the use of evaluation and determination of preference of movement, therapy is able to provide a functional manner for alleviation of symptoms. Although commonly practiced amongst physical therapists, certified athletic trainers could develop the use of the McKenzie method in order to ensure the wellbeing and safety of athletes. With further examination to determine the reliability and validity of the McKenzie method, the profession of athletic training could consider this new form of evaluation and rehabilitation.

The Role of Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy in Treating Athletic Injuries
Sean Rentler,
California University of Pennsylvania

Abstract With the increasing speed, size, and strength of today’s athletes, athletic injuries are becoming more prevalent. Due to high demand for athletic competition, the fast rehabilitation and return to play process is crucial. Common athletic injuries such as torn tendons and ligaments are slow healing injuries that sometimes keep athletes out of play for an entire season, but that could all change with the introduction of platelet rich plasma therapy. Platelet rich plasma therapy may be able to reduce healing time by as much as half for injured athletes and, in the future, may become a great tool for certified athletic trainers, doctors, and physical therapists to utilize in returning athletes to the field sooner.