Category Archives: Research Papers

After Latinidad: Reimagining Latino Identity in the works of Junot Díaz

Grant Glass, Harvard University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/glass.html

Abstract This paper discusses where and how Díaz positions himself within a Latino identity, and how his narrative style incorporates his sense of Latino culture specifically in The Brief Life of Oscar Wao (2007) and Drown (1996).

Introduction Junot Díaz began his first novel, The Brief Life of Oscar Wao (2007) with an epigraph, a poem from the Saint Lucian born Derek Walcott. The poem, “The Schooner Flight” (1980) described the complicated affirmation of identity: “. . . and either I’m nobody or I’m a nation.” Díaz understood that this quote had far reaching implications beyond just the framing of the novel but in positioning his work to a larger group. The question became what group, and even further what identity was he claiming? Was it American, Hispanic, Dominican, or Latino? Only by carefully reading the literary style of Díaz in which he executes his narrative would he reveal what his association was and how that association functioned. Not only did Díaz use poetry to inform and frame his novel, he also used the same device to frame his short story collections.

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Quasi-revolution in psychology and reproducibility of extraordinary results

Artem Akopyan,The University of Western Ontario

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/akopyan2.html

Abstract This article deals with the issue of reliability in contemporary research. Specifically, the idea of purposeful replications of psychological studies is discussed. Next, the two main types of replication are presented and their pertinence to psychology is explained in connection with Darryl Bem’s (2011) notorious article that claimed overwhelming evidence of precognition. The reader is shown the potential shortcomings that might come about as a result of neglecting literal replications or misinterpreting the results obtained with the help of each form of replication Finally, some modern changes in research practices in psychology are mentioned and their significance in scientific testing and theorizing are briefly outlined.

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The Implications of α-synuclein in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

Kelly M. Wilmas,
University of Texas at Austin

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/wilmas.html

Abstract This purpose of this research is to provide valuable information regarding the pathways that cause aggregation of the α-synuclein protein in brain nerve terminals, causing neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction, in order to diagnose Parkinson’s disease early and provide effective treatment. Studies have shown that the idiopathic form of Parkinson’s is strongly associated with changes in α-syn expression due to mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, which causes aggregation of α-syn protein into amyloid deposits in brain nerve terminals. Familial Parkinson’s disease is due to autosomal-dominant inheritance of the mutated α-syn. Thus, α-syn is thought to play a fundamental role in the genetic etiology of Parkinson’s and can possibly be targeted in order to treat the disease. In order to gather more evidence of this, I compiled primary and review research articles on the genetic mechanisms of this protein. In this review, I provide an overview of known interactions of the protein with the environment, genes, and aging process. I also include significant findings that improve our understanding of possible treatment options, targeting α-synuclein, for this debilitating disease.

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Content Analysis and Comparison of Women’s Literature: Relating Sex, Ethnics, and Communication in Gender

Ellen Wieberg, Pittsburg State University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/wieberg.html

Abstract This content analysis bridges the gap between the theoretical in the field of gender studies and the historical situation of societal cultures and pressures surrounding gender with the everyday experiences that are still occurring presently. This paper focuses on nine separate observations from the reference, Sex, Ethnics, and Communication (Peterson, 2011); it then makes a comparison to the everyday life of an American undergraduate student and three other novels.

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Treatment of Exercise-Induced Rhabdomyolysis

Kirstie B. Pistner, California University of Pennsylvania

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/pistner.html

Abstract Rhabdomyolysis is a disorder that causes rapid destruction to the sarcolemma, or cell membrane, of skeletal muscles. Such damage results in leakage of myoglobin and muscle protein into the urine. Complications of rhabdomyolysis can include compartment syndrome of the damaged muscles in the same fascial compartment, kidney failure, and, in extreme cases, death. The rapid detection of myoglobin, the cell’s store of oxygen, into the urine is paramount in the diagnosis and treatment of rhabdomyolysis in order to avoid severe complications and continued digression of the patient. A systemic review of online databases such as SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were utilized to conduct this research. Current clinical research suggests that electrolyte replacement through intravenous fluids and monitoring muscle enzyme levels are acceptable means for managing this skeletal muscle pathology.

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An Examination of Imperialism in Edith Wharton’s Travel Writing

Christine Kelley, Elizabethtown College

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/kelley.html

Introduction Edith Wharton, one of the greatest fiction writers of the 20th century and winner of the Pulitzer Prize for The Age of Innocence, was not only talented at crafting stories but was also renowned for her travel writing. A body of her travel literature centers around her experiences in France, her opinion of their culture, and her observations on the lives of French women. By using Mary Louise Pratt’s Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation to make a critical evaluation, it becomes apparent that Wharton’s travel writing, though useful for the growing tourism industry in the early 20th century, showed a biased preference for France, which lauds the “superiority” for French culture over the more “primitive” French colony of Morocco. Edith Wharton Abroad: Selected Travel Writings 1888-1920 excerpts essential chapters from Wharton’s Motor Flight through Paris and In Morocco.

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Athletes and Pulmonary Embolism

Aimee N. Thompson,
California University of Pennsylvania

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/akopyan.html

Abstract A pulmonary embolism is an obstruction of one or more arteries in the lungs. In most cases, a pulmonary embolism is caused by a blood clot that travels to the lungs from another part of the body. Due to the severity of a pulmonary embolism, various complications such as difficulty breathing, heart failure, or death may occur. Blood clots typically are uncommon in young, healthy individuals. Athletes are generally healthy and well-conditioned individuals but can be at a greater risk of developing a pulmonary embolism because symptoms may be misinterpreted by something less serious and become undiagnosed. This study discussed the leading causes of pulmonary emboli and determined whether or not they related to one another in the athletic population. Current clinical research suggests that post-surgical complications, genetic mutations, protein deficiencies, and oral contraceptives are leading causes of pulmonary emboli. This study compared the leading causes of pulmonary emboli in the athletic population and determined what predisposed them to this pathology.

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Prevention and Treatment of Pediatric and Adolescent Overuse Injuries

Kaitlyn Sippel, California University of Pennsylvania

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/sippel.html

Abstract Today, children do not participate in interscholastic sports alone; they are also members of club teams and travel teams outside of interscholastic play that are year round. Thus, the body is not allowed to fully rest before continuing to the next sport season. Overuse injuries can affect multiple parts of a young athletes’ body including the physis’ and the tendons. Because these overuse injuries affect multiple parts of the body, there are different ways to treat and prevent these injuries. An overview of the most common overuse injuries is presented with the most reciprocated ways to prevent each injury, therefore the purpose of this literature review is to investigate the current preventative measures and treatments for pediatric and adolescent overuse injuries.

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Testing Scientific Claim At Own Risk: Reproducibility Against Novelty

Artem Akopyan, The University of Western Ontario

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/akopyan.html

Abstract The article discusses the problem of validation by means of independent replication. Bem’s studies of precognition are discussed in that context, as well as the recognized measure of implicit attitudes, the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP). Subsequently, a review of LeBel’s replication of Payne, Hall, Cameron, and Bishara (2010) is presented. Finally, important replication-oriented initiatives are outlined.

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Psychological and Legal Evaluation of a “Totality” Versus “Per Se” Approach to Juvenile Offenders

Kelsey Ball, University of Virginia

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v12/ball.html

Introduction As a culturally accepted rule, juveniles are treated differently from adults and are often denied the executive right to make important, life-changing decisions. Due to a presumed lack of experience, maturity, and intellectual capacity, parents and other officials often limit juveniles’ rights to make decisions in an effort to avoid potential social consequences and/or negative repercussions to the adolescent. The presumption that adolescents cannot make sound decisions on their own is supported by various neuro-psychological studies illustrating developmental differences between adolescent and adult brains. These differences are particularly salient in the frontal cortex that is shown to moderate executive functions, such as inhibiting inappropriate behaviors (Begley, 2000). Because of the differences in brain development and cognitive maturity, adolescent decision-making on important issues such as health care, education, and custody is often facilitated by a parent or guardian. All the more, with life-changing decisions relating to criminal offenses, one would expect the implementation of similar precautionary measures with regard to adolescent decision-making; however, this is not the case. Numerous legal cases in the past show the unfortunate outcomes of unassisted juvenile decision-making in police interrogations, highlighting the prevalence of a “totality of circumstances” approach which gives courts complete discretion in determining whether or not a juvenile voluntarily waived their Miranda rights.

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