Category Archives: Research Papers

Extra-personal Schemas: In and out of Tourette’s Syndrome

James Park, Emory University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v15/park.html

Introduction: Most visible in Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is the display of sudden, brief, nonrhythmic, stereotyped movements and vocalizations known as tics. These displays are highly variable, differing not only in type—motor or phonic—but also along several dimensions of severity. Tic type is perhaps a chief distinction as the presence of multiple motor tics and at least one phonic tic is required for TS diagnosis (APA, 2000). While differences in tic severity do not enter into diagnostic criteria, considerable effort has been made at its characterization as well. In particular, the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS)—a widely respected and employed index for assessing tic severity—highlights five dimensions of severity including complexity, number, intensity, frequency, and interference (Leckman et al., 1989).

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The Arts as Means of Socialization in Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home

Daniel Dyonisius, University of Toronto

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v15/dyonisius.html

Abstract: Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home suggests that socialization through the arts, such as writing and drawing, involves a constantly changing interpretation of reality that can contribute to a process of self-identification. The arts provide a foundation for Alison to make a connection to her family, yet also to detach from her parents’ influences at the same time. Emphasizing a social aspect of this process, her self-identification not only involves a reflection of her own life but also integrates her ability to navigate environments filled with the arts and others’ influences in shaping her personality. As an artist, Bechdel incorporates words and pictures to repair her relationship with her father and conveys a story of how she persistently constructs her identity. Nonetheless, her work as a whole reflects a broader significance for society: the creation of self-identity is not a linear process, but rather involves points of continuity and discontinuity that are shaped by the context in which one grows up. At the same time, such context is influenced by interactions between one’s self and agents of socialization mediated through important and specific means, such as the arts.

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Small Scale Living and the Meaning of Home

Shelby Kiser, Kansas State University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v15/kiser.html

Abstract: In current United States housing trends, prices and square footage are rising as personal satisfaction and fulfillment decline. This is a result of people assuming that upgrading their living standards will provide instant gratification, but it may only lead to unhappiness. As our houses grow larger, so do our debts. During the most recent economic down turn a renewed interest in small scale living arose. People began seeing the value in downsizing, reducing debt, and living more sustainably. Evaluating the functional, environmental, economic, and psychological aspects of living small will help determine what challenges one will face by reconsidering how and where they live. With a deeper understanding of the connections and value of home, designers are able create dwellings that can positively influence the users. The potential impact starts with designers, therefore it is crucial to be educated and actively implementing this knowledge into designs.

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Depression Diagnosis and Treatment: Reformation Required

Alessandro A. Luna, Stanford University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/luna.html

Abstract: By the numbers, depression is a staggeringly prevalent mental disorder. 350 million people are depressed worldwide, $11.3 billion is spent on antidepressants annually, and the rate of depression diagnoses has grown 400% since the 1980s. There is a clear necessity for an improvement in current medical practices. Figuring out the root causes, formulating stronger methods of diagnosis, and properly identifying and treating those who suffer from depression is imperative to public health in America and abroad. I propose that advancing scientific quantification of depression by improving the efficacy of research practices and funding will reform the current inadequacy of depression diagnosis and treatment. This proposal is threefold. My first suggestion for reforming depression diagnosis and treatment rests in the publication of all research, studies, and clinical trials associated with the mental disorder. Secondly, we must emphasize a quantitative format for diagnosis and treatment based on the neurobiological specificities of the individual. Finally, we need to consider a system of checks and balances between academic and industrial research to prevent the dissemination of inaccurate information and faulty drugs. It is my hope that advancing neuroscience research through these proposals will elucidate the line between emotion and emotional disorders, helping us treat and diagnose depression more effectively.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/luna.html

General John DeWitt: The Scapegoat

Steven Arango, Newberry College

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/arango2.html

Introduction: During World War II one of the most atrocious events in United States history happened. This was the internment of the Japanese people on the West Coast of the U.S. Over 110,000 Japanese and Japanese-Americans were interned in camps all over America for several years during the War due to the suspicion of the U.S. Government of these people. After the war was over someone had to take responsibility for this repulsive act and that someone was General John DeWitt, the commander of the Western Defense Command for the United States Army. Obviously, there was more than one person involved in this situation but General DeWitt has always been looked upon as the man who orchestrated the internment. Drawing from scholarly research I have come to the conclusion that General DeWitt was merely an officer following orders and a puppet for Lt. Colonel Karl R. Bendetsen and several other key members close to the President.

Read the full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/arango2.html

Same-Sex Marriage

Steven Arango, Newberry College

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/arango1.html

Abstract: This paper discusses why the United States Constitution should not be changed to recognize same-sex marriage as the law of the land. Morality of this issue will not be discussed; only the legality of the issues surrounding same-sex marriage will be examined.

Introduction
Same-sex marriage has been an issue in the United States for decades now and has become a volatile subject (Solomon & Tiemann, 2012). This paper will examine the enactment of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), several court cases against DOMA, the reason why DOMA is unconstitutional, why DOMA should have never been proposed, and how the United States Federal Government attempts to transcend its Constitutional powers via the Interstate Commerce Clause. The Defense of Marriage Act was enacted by the Federal Government and defines “marriage as a relationship between one man and one woman, for the purpose of excluding same-sex couples from the institution of marriage” (Defense of Marriage Act, n.d.). The legality of same-sex marriage and the power to deliberate on it is significant to hundreds of thousands of couples and will have an enormous impact on how constitutional law is interpreted (LaFleur & Obsitnik, 2013). The Federal Government has many broad powers but deciding if it should deliberate and rule on same-sex marriage is a Constitutional dilemma (Article I, n.d.). Same-sex marriage has been legally recognized in a handful of states but overall is still not recognized by a majority of states (Nelson, 2014, p. 1173). This being said, the Federal Government, until June 26, 2013, had not recognized these marriages due to the Defense of Marriage Act (Solomon & Tiemann, 2012, p. 36).

Read the full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/arango1.html

BaiFaXiangQin: Why and How?

Wong Wei Mei, Central China Normal University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/wongweimei.html

Abstract: Since 2004, the proliferation of Marriage Markets has made BaiFaXiangQin an attractive alternative for parents that are anxious and eager to help their single children find a suitable match for marriage. This paper discusses the possible cultural and financial reasons behind the increasing popularity of BaiFaXiangQin in mainland China and identifies the 5 steps used in BaiFaXiangQin to complete the marital selection process.

Read the full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/wongweimei.html

On Violence as a Social Construct: An Experimental Design

Lukas Holschuh, University of East Anglia

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/holschuh.html

Abstract: This paper reviews theories on violence to establish whether there may be cultures that are more violent than others. Violence is examined out of a socio-psychological perspective. According to the four different levels of analysis in social psychology (Doise, 1980), an experimental design is proposed that accounts for the different theories presented. It is argued that violence is a social construct rooted in the potential for violence in the structure and culture of a society. The concept of violence is broken down into three different categories as defined by Galtung (1990): cultural violence, structural violence, and direct violence. Different theories on violence and aggression are presented. Direct violence is conceptualised as the reflection of the psyche of a society in the minds of men, of its cultural belief systems and structural integrity.

Read the full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/holschuh.html

The Effects of Raising the Minimum Wage on the Hospitality Industry

Emily Carpenter, Bradley University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/carpenter.html

Abstract: President Obama broached the subject of raising the minimum wage in the United States, and this paper investigates the impacts of the increase, especially on the hospitality industry. The pros and cons of raising the minimum wage are discussed in terms of employees and employers. The minimum wage will eventually be increased, knowing the benefits and challenges associated with doing so could help managers prepare for the ensuing changes.

Read the full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/carpenter.html

The Effects of Kinesio Taping for Pain Management

Drew Slocum
California University of Pennsylvania

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/slocum.html

Abstract: Kinesio tape is an elastic, adhesive-backed cotton tape that was created in the late 1970’s by Dr. Kenzo Kase of Japan to treat athletic injuries and aid in athletic performance. Aiding in athletic performance includes pain reduction, neuromuscular system re-education, performance optimization, injury prevention, and the promotion of improved circulation and healing. The specific purpose of this review is to determine the effectiveness of kinesio taping on pain reduction. Musculoskeletal pain affects athletes in a negative manner and can lead to a decrease in athletic performance. Numerous studies were reviewed to determine the pain reducing effects of kinesio tape on musculoskeletal injuries that include subacromial impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tendonitis, patellofemoral pain syndrome, mechanical neck pain, and Achilles tendinosis. In conclusion, the studies conducted determined that kinesio tape does have an effect on pain reduction but the exact physiological cause is unknown. Although the results hypothesize that kinesio tape affects the gate control theory, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of kinesio taping on the reduction of pain management.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/slocum.html