Monthly Archives: July 2015

Depression Diagnosis and Treatment: Reformation Required

Alessandro A. Luna, Stanford University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/luna.html

Abstract: By the numbers, depression is a staggeringly prevalent mental disorder. 350 million people are depressed worldwide, $11.3 billion is spent on antidepressants annually, and the rate of depression diagnoses has grown 400% since the 1980s. There is a clear necessity for an improvement in current medical practices. Figuring out the root causes, formulating stronger methods of diagnosis, and properly identifying and treating those who suffer from depression is imperative to public health in America and abroad. I propose that advancing scientific quantification of depression by improving the efficacy of research practices and funding will reform the current inadequacy of depression diagnosis and treatment. This proposal is threefold. My first suggestion for reforming depression diagnosis and treatment rests in the publication of all research, studies, and clinical trials associated with the mental disorder. Secondly, we must emphasize a quantitative format for diagnosis and treatment based on the neurobiological specificities of the individual. Finally, we need to consider a system of checks and balances between academic and industrial research to prevent the dissemination of inaccurate information and faulty drugs. It is my hope that advancing neuroscience research through these proposals will elucidate the line between emotion and emotional disorders, helping us treat and diagnose depression more effectively.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/luna.html

Information Sources Influencing Parental Decisions Regarding Cochlear Implantation of Deaf Children

Rhett Thomson, Utah Valley University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/thomson.html

Abstract: Parents of children born deaf face many significant decisions which can be quite stressful. There are many options available to parents and many sources which supply information and guidance. One option parents are presented with is a technological intervention: cochlear implants. These can enable hearing in the deaf infant. Reaching a decision regarding cochlear implantation comes after significant investigation. Some studies have found that various sources of information, such as audiologists and parent support groups, are useful to parents during the education process. The object of the present study is to determine how influential those sources of information are and why each source was perceived as valuable. This study was performed using a survey composed of primarily close-ended questions. Results indicate that not all parents talk to the same sources in order to gain information, although some sources are more likely to play an educative role than others. Results further indicate that some sources of information influence parental decisions more than others. Reasons why each source is considered useful are also identified.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/thomson.html

Environmental Barriers to Social Services in Rural Communities

Danielle Mitchell, Paulichia Woody, Dr. Ebony L. Hall*, Tarleton State University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/mitchell.html

Abstract: Historically, rural communities have encountered environmental barriers regarding the accessibility and efficiency of social services, having to travel longer distance to access health care placing a heavy reliance on practitioners. This study examines the environmental barriers that define rural communities, the inconsistency in supply and demand for social services such as food, shelter, and security, differences between urban and rural communities, and implications for social work practice. Researchers used a mixed methodological approach in order to examine the adequacy of social services in rural communities with a sample size of 361 participants who lived and/or worked within a rural community. Research confirms that social services in the rural community are limited and political advocacy for resources is vital towards improvements within agencies and organizations serving rural areas.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/mitchell.html

The Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Ishita Aggarwal, University of Toronto

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/aggarwal.html

Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus(T1DM), also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic disease caused by autoimmune(type 1a) or spontaneous(type 1b) destruction of pancreatic beta cells, resulting in insulin deficiency. It is generally diagnosed in children before 20 years of age and is oftentimes fatal. This review will discuss the epidemiology of T1DM, including its incidence and prevalence, related temporal trends and risk factors for development. Furthermore, pathogenesis and immune system involvement of the disease will be evaluated, with a particular focus on cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems. Finally, an overview of past, present and future treatments for T1DM will be discussed.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/aggarwal.html

An Econometric Study of Flight Delay Causes at O’Hare International Airport

Nathan Daniel Boettcher, Dr. Don Thompson*, Pepperdine University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/boettcher.html

Abstract: This study examined the relationship between sources of delay and the level of delay at Chicago’s O’Hare airport. Measuring delay as an aggregation of minutes wasted, rather than a percentage of total on-time flights, led us to conclude that diminishing individual airlines’ contributions to delay would be ineffective in decreasing the aggregate minutes delayed. Our results suggest that policies aimed at reducing delays due to late arriving aircraft would be the most efficacious in lowering the minutes delayed at O’Hare. This result also proposes that further study is required on how to diminish the contribution of a specific source of delay, as opposed to targeting delay as a concept at large.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/boettcher.html

The Separation of Church and Mate: How Does Church Attendance Impact Marital Satisfaction and Why

Michael Briscoe, Brigham Young University – Idaho

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/briscoe.html

Abstract: This study seeks to assess the relationship between church attendance and marital satisfaction. This study uses the 2000 wave of the General Social Survey. It was hypothesized by the author that more frequent church attendance would increase levels of marital satisfaction in respondents. This hypothesis can be explained by the theory of symbolic interactionism, the idea that individuals assign different meanings and symbols to different parts of their life and then act according to those beliefs. It is theorized that people who attend church more frequently view marriage with more symbolism and meaning than those who do not, and therefore those who attend church frequently put forth more effort to maintain that commitment. The data showed that there was a highly statistically significant relationship between church attendance and marital satisfaction, and that the more frequently an individual attends church, the more satisfied they will be with their marriage. However, although this relationship was shown to be highly statistically significant, the amount of influence church attendance has on marital satisfaction is minimal. The results of this study show that further research may need to be conducted, particularly between different religions and religious denominations, and the effect that each of these individually may have on marital satisfaction.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/briscoe.html

Neural Control of Micturition in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Natalie Poonam Phagu, Stony Brook University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/phagu.html

Abstract: Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a neural disorder characterized by atypical motor function as well as dysfunction of the lower urinary tract (LUT). Micturition (urine evacuation/voiding) and continence (urine storage) are modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) through innervation in the Basal Ganglia region of the midbrain, including the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Loss of these dopaminergic pathways and the resultant loss of D1 receptor-mediated inhibition have been linked to the development of LUT dysfunction in PD (Araki et al, 2000 and Ogawa et al, 2006). Thus, through lesioning of the SN via 6-OHDA, this study has created a commonly used rat model of PD for the purpose of improving upon cystometric study and evaluation of bladder dysfunction in PD.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/phagu.html

Perceptions of Undergraduate College Students toward Individuals with Physical Disabilities

Ashlyn Dent, Grey Prescott, Jordan Wilson, Karyssa Brinkley, Marian Tabi, PhD**, Georgia Southern University, School of Nursing

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/dent.html

Abstract: Research indicates that negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities exist which can result in loneliness and isolation. One way to further research to examine attitudes towards persons with disabilities is to study the perceptions of undergraduate students and the perceptions of persons with disabilities.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v14/dent.html