Monthly Archives: December 2014

The Importance of Ethno-Medicinal Plants amongst the Iraqw in the Karatu District: Cultural and Conservation Implications

Simmi Patel, Muhlenberg College – John Mwamhanga*, Center for Wildlife Management Studies, SFS

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/patel.html

Abstract: This study documents indigenous medicinal plant utilization, cultural implications, and threats affecting the survival of indigenous plants. Documenting the medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used as a basis for future development of management plans for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area. The study was carried out in the Karatu District, specifically in the Buger region between April 11, 2013 and April 20, 2013. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations, focus group discussions, and direct matrix ranking with the village leaders on preference of medicinal plants. The ethno medicinal use of 32 plant species was documented in the study area. However, results indicated that only 30.2 percent use ethno-medicinal plants to treat human diseases. On the contrary, 98.1 percent use modern medicine (medicine from a dispensary or a hospital). The most common human diseases in the Buger region were Malaria (47%) followed by the influenza virus (also known as the common cold, 27%). Most of the medicinal plants species were collected from local gardens. Direct matrix analysis showed that Mgunga moto (Acacia mellyere), Msokoni, and Durang were the top ranked most important species used for medicine followed by Matsafi and Garmo. The factors that were tested with use of ethno-medicinal plants were gender, education level, and age class structures. Results showed that the use of ethno-medicinal plants is dependent upon education level but not on gender and age class structures. Our results showed that ethno-medicinal plant species were once a form of a traditional medicine; many have reported to prefer modern medicine over ethno-medicine. These plant species used by the people of the Buger village can be potentially threatened due to several factors, which indicate the need for attention to conservation and sustainable utilization.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/patel.html

An Overlooked Population: Adults with Sensory Modulation Disorder

Jessma Barrani, University of Utah

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/barrani.html

Abstract: This paper brings to light the physical, emotional, and social difficulties experienced by children and adults with Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD). SMD is a subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD). SPD is a condition in which a person’s perception and their responses of sensory stimulation are atypical to the stimulus (Miller & Benjamin, 2013). Sensory modulation disorder is defined as difficulty modulating and regulating the degree, intensity, and nature of responses to sensory input. Their uncharacteristic response prevents them from adapting to the demand of everyday life (Kinnealey, Koenig, & Smith, 2011, p. 320).

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/barrani.html

Engagement Differences for 2-year-olds Identified as Late Talker

Brianna E. Hendricksen, Shari L. DeVeney*, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/hendricksen.html

Abstract: The investigators compared engagement in language-rich activities for 2-year-olds identified as late talkers and their typically developing peers. Participants included twelve 2-year-old children ranging in age from 24- to 33-months of age (M = 27 months; SD = 2.906), three were identified as being typically developing, five were identified as having expressive-only language delay, and four were identified as having expressive and receptive language delay. From videotaped interactions, child behaviors were coded as unengaged (e.g., uninvolved with any specific people, objects, or symbols), onlooking (e.g., watching researcher or parent activity, but not taking part), person engaged (e.g., involved solely with researcher/parent as social partners), or object engaged (e.g., playing with objects such as toys and/or picture symbols alone) for 15-second increments of all videotaped interactions (M = 378.13 minutes per participant; SD = 11.89). Consistent with previous findings for typically developing and expressive-only late talkers, no significant engagement differences were noted across participant groupings; however, a nonsignificant trend was notable for object-engagement with expressive-receptive late talkers.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/hendricksen.html

Cosmetics Use Among Teachers is Irrelevant When Considering Student Retention

Margaret K. Burns, Christina M. Frederick*, Sierra Nevada College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/burns.html

Abstract: Research evidence shows cosmetics positively impact female teacher confidence (Stuart & Donaghue, 2011). Female teachers wearing cosmetics indicate they feel more productive, knowledgeable, and confident than female teachers not wearing cosmetics (Dellinger & Williams, 1997). Sadler (2013) showed confidence also increases teaching effectiveness. The current study aimed to assess the impact of teacher confidence produced by cosmetics on student retention. This was experimentally assessed with 60 participants (39 females, 21 males) randomly assigned to view an 8 min, pre-recorded, lesson on facial anatomy led by a teacher in no cosmetics or full cosmetics. Upon lesson conclusion, participants completed a teacher confidence assessment (5-point Likert scale) and 10-item multiple choice quiz on lesson content. Data were sorted by condition, and the Mann-Whitney U (Ryan & Joiner, 2001) was used to test for differences in confidence ratings (p = .23) and content quiz scores (p = .58). Results show no significant difference between the cosmetics and no cosmetics conditions. A Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for both the cosmetics (r = -.17) and no cosmetics condition (r = .11). No significant correlations were found in either condition. Although previous research (Stuart & Donaghue, 2011) may suggest teachers who do not wear cosmetics should wear cosmetics to increase their confidence, the current study provides evidence there is no need for adjustment to cosmetics use.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/burns.html

The Impact of Self-Induced Laughter on Psychological Stress

M. I. Evelina Rutdal, Christina M. Frederick*, Sierra Nevada College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/rutdal.html

Abstract: American stress levels rose 39 percent in 2011 (APA, 2011). Research shows laughter produces endorphins that decrease health risks (e.g., MacDonald, 2008) but has primarily considered laughter produced by comic events (e.g., Ko & Youn, 2011). The current study examined the impact of self-induced laughter on psychological stress. Undergraduates (33 males and 27 females) were randomly paired and assigned to laugh or read aloud. Following, participants completed a stress inducing activity (adapted from Försvarsmakten, 2013). During this activity, participants listened to and recorded answers from a soundtrack, sorted cards, and paired information. After stress induction, participants completed the Emotional Stress Reaction Questionnaire (ESRQ; Larsson, 2010) followed by a relaxation exercise. ESRQs were sorted by laughter or reading group and scored. General linear modeling indicated no significant difference in psychological stress between laughter and reading conditions (p = .980). No significant difference in psychological stress was found between genders (p = .767). Generally, the findings indicate self-induced laughter prior to a stressful event does not decrease psychological stress.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/rutdal.html

Risk Factors of Physical Violence in Dating Relationships among African American College Students

Tara Bremond, Bonnie Ahn*, Lolita Boykin*, Southeastern Louisiana University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/bremond.html

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors of physical violence in dating relationships among African American college students. Specifically, the study aimed to examine if a model exists explaining physical dating violence from perceptual measures, together with demographic measures including the variables such as beliefs and attitudes towards partner abuse, gender, age, class standing, length of dating relationships, mean age of first date, and household income. Results of the study found that there were significant relationships between various perceptions of dating violence and the actual experiences with physical dating violence.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/bremond.html

Increased Blood Glucose Leads to Increased Sleepiness and Heart Rate Without Change to Autonomic Tone

Derek Randolph, Georgia Gwinnett College, Shelby Pressler, Oglethorpe University, James B. Crabbe,* Georgia Gwinnett College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/randolph.html

Abstract: Pre- and post-prandial measures were completed on 6 healthy individuals (2 men, 4 women, mean age 21 yrs.) to investigate the changes that a meal would have on blood glucose (mg/dL), feelings of sleepiness (VAS), and autonomic tone (SDRR; HRV). These measures were counterbalanced and compared to a no meal condition with the same participants. Glucose, sleepiness, and HR were significantly higher after a meal, while heart rate variability (HRV) was not significantly different between the protocols. The results of this study did not confirm the hypothesis that postprandial sleepiness would be related to adjustments in autonomic tone as measured by HRV.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/randolph.html

Role of PA5003 in Colistin-induced Over-expression of Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal in P. aeruginosa

Shuya Zhai, James Schafhauser, Geoffrey McKay, Dao Nguyen*, McGill University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/zhai.html

Abstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene. CF patients are more susceptible to opportunistic infections by different bacteria, and most importantly P. aeruginosa,which causes both acute and chronic infections because of its ability to secrete numerous virulent compounds and degradative enzymes. Expression of the virulent compounds is controlled by quorum sensing. The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal system (PQS) is one of three quorum-sensing networks in P. aeruginosa. A study found that sub-inhibitory concentration of the cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) colistin induced PQS overproduction in P. aeruginosa, but the exact mechanism remains elusive. It was also previously demonstrated that the gene PA5003 is required for P. aeruginosa to recognize and respond to the presence of the CAMPs (colistin). From a random mutagenesis screen conducted, our lab also demonstrated that loss of PA5003 led to reduced PQS expression. These observations led us to hypothesize that PA5003 is required for colistin-induced PQS over-production. In this study, we confirmed that colistin induced over-expression of pqsA, one of the PQSbiosynthesis genes, and demonstrated that PA5003 plays a role in the overexpression of pqsA induced by sub-inhibitory concentration of colistin.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/zhai.html

General John DeWitt: The Scapegoat

Steven Arango, Newberry College

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/arango2.html

Introduction: During World War II one of the most atrocious events in United States history happened. This was the internment of the Japanese people on the West Coast of the U.S. Over 110,000 Japanese and Japanese-Americans were interned in camps all over America for several years during the War due to the suspicion of the U.S. Government of these people. After the war was over someone had to take responsibility for this repulsive act and that someone was General John DeWitt, the commander of the Western Defense Command for the United States Army. Obviously, there was more than one person involved in this situation but General DeWitt has always been looked upon as the man who orchestrated the internment. Drawing from scholarly research I have come to the conclusion that General DeWitt was merely an officer following orders and a puppet for Lt. Colonel Karl R. Bendetsen and several other key members close to the President.

Read the full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/arango2.html

Same-Sex Marriage

Steven Arango, Newberry College

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/arango1.html

Abstract: This paper discusses why the United States Constitution should not be changed to recognize same-sex marriage as the law of the land. Morality of this issue will not be discussed; only the legality of the issues surrounding same-sex marriage will be examined.

Introduction
Same-sex marriage has been an issue in the United States for decades now and has become a volatile subject (Solomon & Tiemann, 2012). This paper will examine the enactment of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), several court cases against DOMA, the reason why DOMA is unconstitutional, why DOMA should have never been proposed, and how the United States Federal Government attempts to transcend its Constitutional powers via the Interstate Commerce Clause. The Defense of Marriage Act was enacted by the Federal Government and defines “marriage as a relationship between one man and one woman, for the purpose of excluding same-sex couples from the institution of marriage” (Defense of Marriage Act, n.d.). The legality of same-sex marriage and the power to deliberate on it is significant to hundreds of thousands of couples and will have an enormous impact on how constitutional law is interpreted (LaFleur & Obsitnik, 2013). The Federal Government has many broad powers but deciding if it should deliberate and rule on same-sex marriage is a Constitutional dilemma (Article I, n.d.). Same-sex marriage has been legally recognized in a handful of states but overall is still not recognized by a majority of states (Nelson, 2014, p. 1173). This being said, the Federal Government, until June 26, 2013, had not recognized these marriages due to the Defense of Marriage Act (Solomon & Tiemann, 2012, p. 36).

Read the full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/arango1.html