Monthly Archives: April 2014

Nutritional Profiling Systems: Can They Be Implemented in Subsidiary Food Pantries for Reducing Nutrient Deficiencies Among the Elderly?

Rebecca L. Walker
Olivet Nazarene University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/walker.html

Abstract: Learning Outcomes: Identify the nutritional adequacy of food pantry boxes and recognize the potential of nutrition profiling to reduce nutrient deficiencies in the elderly.

Background: The elderly food pantry client (> 60 years old) has increased risk for nutrient-related deficiencies due to a reduced intake of macronutrients, Iron, Calcium, and Vitamins A and C.

Methods: This mixed method design examined the presence of nutritional profiling systems in the United States Department of Agriculture’s Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP), two regional food banks, and three subsidiary food pantries through six interviews and a 10-question survey with each facility director. The pantries were selected for their designation as a full or partially client-choice food pantry. Additionally, a nutritional analysis of a sample of 10 boxes from each pantry and 1 box from the CSFP (total n=31) was completed using MyPlate Supertracker.

Results: Two themes emerged from the data: first, nutritional profiling was not a system in use and, second, there is a desire to implement a system if the regional food banks create it. The nutritional analysis sample provided an average of 102 percent of carbohydrates, 66 percent of protein, 45 percent of fat, 34 percent of Calcium, 131 percent of Iron, 47 percent of Vitamin A, and 34 percent of Vitamin C of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for an elderly male client.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that nutrition profiling is not currently utilized, but pantries are interested in utilizing a system if provided by food banks. Because this study was exploratory, results cannot be generalized without further research.

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Effects of Arthritis Exercise Program Participation on Arthritis Management Self-efficacy and Arthritis Pain Levels

Kaitlyn McManus
Truman State University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/mcmanus.html

Abstract: Arthritis self-efficacy has emerged as one of the most important variables in understanding pain in people with arthritis. A convenience sample of senior adults participating (experimental) and not participating (control) in an Arthritis Foundation Exercise Program was compared to determine if there was a difference in self-efficacy and arthritis pain due to participating in the 8-week program. The results of an independent samples t-test revealed a statistically significant difference in the total mean scores of the experimental and control group for the Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain Scale, t(25) = 2.42, p = 0.02; and although the experimental group scored higher than the control group for the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, t(25) = -1.40, p = 0.18, that difference was not significant. Results reinforce the importance of exercise in arthritis pain management and the need to improve patient self-efficacy to improve patient outcomes.

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AirAsia’s Application of the ‘Thirty-Six Stratagems’

Wong Wei Mei
Central China Normal University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/wong-weimei.html

Abstract: Based on the ”36 Stratagems” (三十六计)—a compilation of strategies from the China Warring States Era, this paper analyses the transfer of military strategies into the corporate setting of AirAsia. The ”36 Stratagems” plan offers new perspectives about how to form creative strategies in today’s dynamic business landscape with similar characteristics to ancient Chinese warfare, particularly for the aviation industry surrounding AirAsia in South-East Asia. This paper illuminates the different ways AirAsia utilised one of the stratagems during the global economic crisis in 2008 and how the low-cost carrier adapted the stratagem to the business model and market condition.

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Effect of Motivational Type on Goal-Setting Behavior

Maryam Kazmi
Boston College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/kazmi.html

Abstract: Whether an athlete is intrinsically, extrinsically, or amotivated and whether or not he or she sets goals are important determinants of that athlete’s performance. This study was aimed at exploring whether a certain type of motivation can predict whether a person will use goal-setting techniques and find them to be effective. The present study also hoped to determine whether the type of motivation that athletes reported and their goal-setting behavior differed depending on whether they were recreational or elite collegiate athletes. Male basketball players were recruited to participate in the study, half of whom were recreational athletes and the other half from the Boston College Men’s D1 Basketball team. Through the use of two separate questionnaires that were administered to participants, the results of the studies supported the assertion that intrinsically motivated individuals tended to set more goals, commit to these goals, and found these goals to be more effective than those who exhibited the other types of motivation. No differences existed between the recreational group and the D1 group in either motivation or goal setting behavior. This study informs researchers that individuals who participate in a sport for the sake of the sport itself tend to set more goals in order to benefit their own performance.

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Women with Eating Disorders and Perceived Social Support

Claire E. Cusack & Jennifer L. Hughes*
Agnes Scott College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/cusack.html

Abstract: Body image issues and eating disorders are becoming a growing concern for women. Social support has been found to serve as a buffer for mental health even when the person is experiencing psychological distress (Kawachi & Berkman, 2001). The aim of the current study was to determine whether social support is related to eating disorder attitudes and body image concerns by examining the effects of social support for women with and without eating disorders while attending to other variables, such as eating disorder type, level of care received, and sexual orientation. Our sample was composed of 202 participants who voluntarily completed an online survey. There were positive correlations between body image and perceived social support from family and friends for women with and without eating disorders. ANOVAs showed no significant effect of perceived social support from friends or family or level of care on eating disorder symptoms or body image. Lastly, in regard to sexual orientation, there were no significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in eating disordered symptoms, number of women with eating disorders, or body image concern. The results indicate that women with eating disorders perceive less social support than women without eating disorders from friends, and family. Additionally, social support from family and friends is related to a more positive body image for both women with and without eating disorder history. Women experience similar frequency of eating disordered symptoms and body image concerns regardless of type of social support or level of care. Lastly, our findings show that women of varying sexual orientations experience eating disorder symptoms and body image concerns at similar rates. The results of this research have implications to influence eating disorder prevention and treatment programs by acknowledging the impact of social support on eating disorder symptoms and body image for women.

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An Investigation of Status Posts and Happiness of Facebook Users

Angela V. Galioto, Jennifer L. Hughes, and Chen Zuo,
Agnes Scott College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/galioto.html

Abstract: Online social networking sites have become a way for individuals to keep in contact with others around the world, with Facebook being one of the most popular sites. Facebook allows individuals to express themselves through its features, one of which is the status update. The authors examined whether or not there was a relationship between the content and frequency of Facebook users’ status posts and their happiness. The researchers had three hypotheses: (a) users who reported more happiness would have more positive posts, (b) younger users would post more frequently and post more negative content, (c) women would post more frequently and post more negative content as compared to men, and (d) frequent posts would contain more negative content. The study included 412 participants of which 89 percent were female. The participants completed an online survey, giving their three most recent status posts, and they completed a happiness scale. A positive correlation between age and happiness was found, men posted more frequently than women, and a negative relationship between frequency of status posts and positive content was found. This study adds to the literature on Facebook and users’ happiness. For future studies researchers should measure both personality and life satisfaction along with the content of Facebook posts.

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Functional Movement Screen™ and Ankle Stability

Mary A. Dunyak, Meredith College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/dunyak.html

Abstract: More injuries occur in the ankle than any other bodily joint (Fong, Hong, Chan, Yung & Chan, 2007), and those injuries often lead to symptoms of instability (Yeung, Chan, So, & Yuan, 1994). The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) has advertised itself as a tool to identify an individual’s risk of injury. The purpose of this research was to determine if the FMS™ could be a valid tool for predicting ankle injury, by exploring if a relationship exists between the FMS™ and ankle stability. Sixty individuals, aged 18-25, participated in this study. Each participant took part of an FMS™, as well as the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) test as the measure of ankle stability. Correlations were utilized to analyze the results. Results showed that the FMS™ may not be the best tool as an ankle injury screen. Because the FMS™ is often performed in sport performance or physical therapy settings, this research may provide insight to the usefulness of this screen in those settings.

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Healthcare Safety Net in 2030

Stephen P. Petzinger, George Mason University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v13/petzinger.html

Abstract As the United States embarks on massive health care reform through the continued implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), policy makers must look to the future with unrelenting support for greater access to care. Albert Einstein (1946), one of the greatest intellectuals of all time, once said, ” . . . a new type of thinking is essential if mankind is to survive and move toward higher levels.” How does a health care system, with such deep-rooted principles of profit making and inefficiency, accomplish such lofty aspirations? Balabanova et al. (2013) argued, policy makers need to realize the complexity of the US health care system and that no simple recipe exists for success. No one can accurately predict the state of our health care system 17 years from now or what role the safety-net system will play to increase access to care. However, this author does know that if we ignore or sublimate such important questions, we will be much worse off than we are today.

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