Monthly Archives: December 2011

Referential Communication in Bilingual and Monolingual Children

Lorraine M. Rindahl, Marie A. Stadler*, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/rindahl.html

Abstract The purpose of this project was to discover differences in the referential communication skills of bilingual and monolingual children. The children participated in two barrier tasks, one in which each child followed verbal directions and one in which they gave verbal directions, each without benefit of visual cues. Differences were found between the two groups of children with the monolingual children outperforming the bilingual children with receiving and giving verbal directions, even though the bilingual children were considered fluent in English. 

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Gender Representation in a Selection of Children’s Picture Books: A Skewed Ratio of Male to Female Characters?

Heather MacArthur, Carmen Poulin*, University of Brunswick

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/macarthur.html

Abstract The present research investigates the ratio of male to female characters in a selection of 92 children’s picture books chosen at random from the local library of a small Atlantic Canadian city. Results indicate that, consistent with past findings, male characters are depicted more often than female characters in the titles, cover illustrations, main characters, and page illustrations of the sample. When the results are broken down, however, it is apparent that human male and human female characters are depicted relatively equally, while male animals are represented significantly more often than female animals. Reasons for these findings and the implications for young readers are discussed. 

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A Holistic Approach to Understanding Military TBIs: A Multidisciplinary Perspective

Stephanie L. Summers, Christie Chung*, Mills College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/summers.html

Abstract This paper reviews the major findings and controversies relevant to military-related Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) from various disciplines (mainly psychology, medicine, and neuroscience). The aim is to aid readers in examining the topic from a multidisciplinary perspective that takes into consideration the interconnection of the various domains of functioning affected by a military TBI in order to better understand the complicated challenges faced by military personnel who are returning to our communities with such injuries. I will begin by briefly defining TBI and explaining how a TBI may occur, followed by a review of studies regarding biopsychosocial outcomes that represent the most commonly noted changes, complications, and challenges an individual with a military TBI may face. Then, the implications of the research are presented, the connections that can be made between them, and the new directions the research community should pursue in order to further our understanding of the military TBIs on all levels of functioning and from injury to outcome.

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Professor-Student Interactions and Student Participation: Comparing the Effects of Body Language and Sex on Classroom Participation

Luke Brenneman, Wes Bass, Jordan Peterson, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v10/brenneman.html

Abstract Despite extensive research and widely-held belief supporting the fact that educators call on males more than females in the classroom, the sex of students may overshadow the importance of the body language typical of each sex in classroom interactions between educators and students. This study sought to explore how significantly body language influences professor-student interactions through the use of classroom observation and self-reported surveys at a small Midwestern university. Results of both observation and surveys were analyzed primarily by using frequencies and percentages in order to measure the extent to which the independent variable, body language and sex of students, is correlated to the dependent variable, student participation and professors’ interactions with students based on sex. Results indicated that a combination of a student being a male and exhibiting several specific positions of male-associated body language is correlated with more professor-student interactions than any other variable combination. When combined with data about females displaying certain elements of each sex’s body language, results strongly suggested that a combination of sex and sex-associated body language determine frequency and quality of educator-student interactions.

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Russian Demographics: The Role of the Collapse of the Soviet Union

Christopher Hoeppler, McMaster University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v10/hoeppler.html

Abstract Communism is a political ideal that is often viewed negatively by democratic societies. Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian Federation has experienced a rising mortality rate. It is clear that the political turmoil of the country played a key role in the eventual demographics of Russia. Coinciding with the onset of democracy a number of factors including economics, lifestye, healthcare, and disease incidence have contributed to the decline in population. The current demographic state, underlying causes, and next steps will be explored within the paper.

Introduction The Russian Federation experienced a surge in death rates of almost 40 percent since 1992, with numbers rising from 11 to 15.5 per thousand (Bhattacharya et al., 2011). The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought with it many social, political, and economic changes that continue to affect Russia to this day. Although all countries progress along the demographic transition model differently, general trends are shown. Nonetheless, Russia appears to be experiencing a unique transition of its own. Each country experiences population decline for varying reasons, such as disease diffusion as experienced by Africa with the AIDS epidemic; others can be caused by societal advancements that lead to lower fertility rates.

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Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Treatments, and Manifestations in Several Different Ethnicities

Tyler Ben-Jacob, Binghamton University

Full paper: www.kon.org/urc/v10/ben-jacob.html

Abstract Diabetes is a rapidly growing disease across the world. It manifests itself by unusually large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine and afflicts various populations. There are numerous causes for this disorder, and genetics often plays a role. This paper discusses types of diabetes, their causes, and the treatments. Diet, medical care, and self-management techniques play roles in dealing with diabetes.

Introduction: Diabetes is a disease caused by flawed carbohydrate metabolism and manifests itself by unusually large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine (Jacobs & Fishberg, 2002, p. 1). There are numerous causes for this disorder, some strengthened by genetic predisposition. This paper will focus on the disorder as it manifests itself in the Jewish, Latino, and African-American populations with regard to diet, access to medical care, and compliance with self-management techniques.

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