Allison Holt, Patricia Ravert*
Brigham Young University
Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v9/holt.html
Abstract: This study compared Apgar scores and oxygenation levels of well infants born by Cesarean section (c-section) to those delivered vaginally. T-tests in a sample of 321 well infants (17.1% c-section deliveries and 82.2% vaginal deliveries) revealed no statistically significant difference between c-section and vaginal births for Apgar scores and oxygenation.
Every year in the United States over four million babies are born. In recent years, Cesarean Sections have increased with rates surging from less than 7 percent in 1970 to 30.2 percent in 2005 (Hamilton, Martin, & Ventura, 2006). Although Cesarean section (c-section) births are medically indicated for some individuals, information regarding the effect a vaginal or c-section birth may have on an infant would be essential for those mothers considering a c-section for non-medical reasons. As a nursing student, instructors at times promote natural birth methods. This led me to question what effect different modes of birth have on the baby.
University of Maryland University College
Full paper: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/groat.html
Abstract Our nation’s modern media acts as a devastating destructive force to the family unit in America, and its effects are felt worldwide. The rearing of children has been taken from the hands of parents into grips of mass media. Producers of mass communications render inaccurate societal depictions, and individuals respond in active accordance with what is portrayed. Media embeds messages of violence, body image, and teen sexuality, all of which encourage single parent and/or cohabitating homes out of wedlock and destroys marriages through pornography. Continuation of this family degradation cycle will result in the collapse of the family as a social function and force for stability in communities as well as on a worldwide scale.
Bowling Green State University
Full manuscript: http://www.kon.org/urc/v8/mahulawde.html
Abstract The Time-Oriented Quality of Life Scale (TOQLS) was developed to measure one’s present quality of life in relationship to one’s desired future quality of life. The ten items were economics, housing, family life, education, social life, neighborhood, transportation, desired career, mental health, and physical health. The population for this study consisted of 12 elementary, 14 middle school, 13 high school, and 15 college students. Results indicated that African Americans and Caucasians did not differ in reports of present or future quality of life but that elementary students had a lower future quality compared to the other age groups. The racial differences of quality of life are discussed.