The Effects of Sexual Content in Television and Film on Young Adults

Cate Davis, Emily Hahn, Miah Kinlow – Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/kinlow.html

Abstract: This study examined the effects of sexual content within television and film on young adults. It was hypothesized that consumption of television and film with sexual content would have an effect on the viewers of such media. No specific hypothesis was assigned in order to avoid assigning morality to sexuality. One hundred and fifty-one participants aged 18-25 took a survey designed by the present researchers. A t-test was completed to compare the amount of hours of television or film watched with the gender of the participant, and no significant relationship was found between the two variables. A Pearson r correlation coefficient was used to analyze the amount of hours watched with the five indices of behavior, attitude, language, imagery, and explicitness stemming from the researcher-created instrument. Statistically significant relationships were found between media frequency language, imagery, and explicitness categories.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/kinlow.html

The Impact of Music on Locomotor Skill Performance in Children

Julieann M. Berg, Casey M. Breslin* – Temple University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/berg.html

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of asynchronous music on the performance of locomotor skills in a group of children ages 9-12 years. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in locomotor performance between the music and quiet conditions, t20 = .142, p = .889.

Introduction: The development of fundamental motor skills (i.e., running, jumping, hopping) contributes to cognitive, social, motor, and physical growth in children (Robinson & Goodway, 2009). Facilitating a timely and proper development of these skills is essential to keeping children healthy and active. Once learned, these skills lay the groundwork for the development of more specialized exercise and sport skills that can be retained for a lifetime (Stodden et al., 2008). Motor skills must be taught, and the continuous interaction between the learner and his or her environment can determine the competency of skill performance that is achieved (Clark, 2007). The constraints present in the learning environment can encourage or discourage different behaviors and may contribute to the reinforcement of skills throughout the lifespan (Haywood and Getchell, 2009). Haywood and Getchell (2009) define environmental constraints as characteristics of the world outside the body that encourage some movements, while discouraging others, and these constraints can be physical or sociocultural in nature.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/berg.html

The Notre Dame Hookup Culture

Michelle Mowry – University of Notre Dame

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/mowry.html

Abstract: The heterosexual “hookup culture” on college campuses has received copious attention since the year 2000 (Bogle 2007: 775). Hookups are defined as “brief uncommitted sexual encounters between individuals who are not romantic partners or dating each other” (Garcia et al 2012: 161). This thesis examined the hookup culture at the University of Notre Dame through an online survey of Notre Dame undergraduates. This university provided the unique opportunity to investigate the effects of academic and extracurricular commitment and religiosity on frequency of hooking up.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/mowry.html

Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Changes

Alexandra Alford, Chanal Carlisle, Bridgett Clinton* – University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES)

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/alford.html

Abstract: Obesity is affecting children all over the world and it is increasingly recognized as a major public health epidemic. There have been more and more cases of non-communicable chronic diseases occurring in young children, due to increased weight in children (Slusser et al., 2011). Researchers are constantly trying to find ways to fight this problem by determining what is most effective. Numerous studies suggest that the incidences of key non-communicable chronic diseases are heavily associated with lifestyle and physical activity. The issue of childhood obesity was examined in this study by surveying parents of an after-school program located on the campus of a Historically Black College. A survey was created to measure parent’s willingness to accept nutrition education and their level of commitment to making healthy lifestyle changes for their families. Survey results revealed that parents want to better their lifestyles for themselves and their children. However, they need help with implementing healthy lifestyle changes.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/alford.html

The Prevalence of Sexually Explicit Material on a Christian Campus

Anna O’Dell, Andrea Christener, Elise Kline – Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/christener.html

Abstract: Sexually explicit material has grown in all areas of media: television, books, movies, and on the Internet. In this study, sexually explicit material is defined as any material that is used directly for the purpose of sexual arousal. To test the effects of environment, we measured the prevalence of sexually explicit material within a Christian university campus. Our hypothesis was that the level of sexual material would be lower compared to other universities due to high moral values and that men would have a higher frequency than females in regards to sexually explicit material usage. The variables within our study were depth of faith in an individual, frequency of sexual material viewed, romantic relationship questions, rankings of sexually explicit material, and whether an individual believed they have lost control of their usage of sexually explicit material. We found that the use of sexually explicit material was high in frequency and that morality did not affect that frequency, which opposes our hypothesis. There was significance in gender influencing the frequency of use, which was in line with our hypothesis.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/christener.html

Exploration of Beverage Selection of Students Attending a Historically Black College or University (HBCU)

Laurel Huffman, Malinda D. Cecil* – University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES)

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/huffman.html

Abstract: Previous research indicated that college students attending predominantly white institutions (PWI) tend to select more unhealthy beverages than healthy beverages when choosing a drink (Mead, 2009). The purpose of this study was to investigate the types of beverages consumed by students attending the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES), a Historically Black College or University (HBCU). A validated beverage questionnaire was distributed over an 8-week period to students studying in a computer lab. Out of a total of 35 surveys collected only 27 surveys were valid for analysis. Survey results for the top 5 beverages consumed by students at an HBCU were consistent with other beverage intake studies. Unlike the results from pervious beverage studies, students at UMES reported water as their top choice, which is inconsistent with results from PWI. Although students at UMES reported drinking more water, the average caloric intake from beverages at UMES was 755 calories per day, over one-fourth of a typical college student’s daily caloric needs. Additionally, 25.9 percent of the students consumed more than 1,000 calories from beverages. These finding suggest that while water is the beverage of choice for the majority of students surveyed, they are still consuming many high calorie beverages of various nutritional content. Further research is planned to explore factors that influence college student’s beverage selection.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/huffman.html

Instructor Impact on Student Dropouts

Jace Blackburn, Hannah Bowles, Matt Bittner, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/bowles.html

Abstract: The number of teenagers dropping out in high school is a social problem that is often not talked about or researched enough. A great, working teacher-student relationship is vital for student success in the educational system. This research study looks at some of the different variables that influence teenagers to drop out of high school, focusing on the question of whether or not teachers have an impact on the decision. The purpose is to raise awareness about the qualities of high school students who typically drop out, so that those statistics may decrease in the future.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/bowles.html

Art and Education

Maggie Gilliam, Abby Goering, Paige Jones, Huntington University

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/goering.html

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to show the importance of art in a student’s educational experience. This study focused on a student’s emotional expression, social confidence, and academic excellence. These areas of research were measured with survey questions that examined students’ participation in the arts and how it affected them in these three areas. The survey allowed participants to reflect on their personal experiences and rate the success that they noticed.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/goering.html

The Effectiveness of Model-Lead-Test and a Break Card with Hand-over-Hand Tracing on the Handwriting for a High School Student with Autism

Emalia C. Steele, Mika S. Aoyama, Jennifer M. Neyman*, T. F. McLaughlin* – Gonzaga University, and Kim Hatch*- Spokane Public Schools

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/steele.html

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Model-Lead-Test (MLT) procedure on letter size and legibility for lowercase alphabetical letters. The participant was a 15-year-old male high school student. A multiple baseline design across three sets of letters was employed to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. A break card procedure and hand-over-hand prompting was added five sessions after the first intervention to improve his writing. These changes produced large gains in his handwriting. When this procedure was added to the next set of letters, increases in performance took place. However, for three sessions for this set of letters, the participant was unable to improve his handwriting performance. A multiple baseline design across three sets of letters to the midline, above the midline, and below the midline was employed to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. The participant’s ability to demonstrate appropriate size and form of lowercase alphabetical letters was found. Unfortunately, intervention on Set 3 did not occur. The procedures were easy to implement and employ in the classroom setting.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/steele.html

The Heart’s Hand in Creativity: The Effect of Coherence™ Meditation

Beau D. Kissler, Christina M. Frederick – Sierra Nevada College

Full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/kissler.html

Abstract: The Coherence Technique™ is meditation wherein individuals generate positive feelings (e.g., appreciation) while attending their heart area (McCraty & Childre, 2002). Positive emotions improve creativity (Magno, 2011; Kauffman, 2003) and adaptive problem solving (Friedman, Förster, & Denzler, 2007). Coherence is expedited when monitoring progress using the Institute of HeartMath’s biofeedback device, the EmWave Desktop Monitor™ (McCraty, 2002). The current study examines the relationship between meditation and creativity. 43 undergraduates, aged 18-30, were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (non-, medium-, and high-coherence). The non-coherence group completed an intellectually demanding academic test prior to a 10-minute creativity test focused on unique idea generation (Macleod, 2009). Medium- and high-coherence participants were trained using the quick coherence technique and an EmWave™ biofeedback monitor. The medium-coherence group included participants who could not maintain high coherence for 3 minutes, uninterrupted. Participants who could maintain high coherence for 3 minutes, qualified for the high-coherence group. Immediately after coherence training, medium- and high-coherence participants completed the creativity test. Creativity test performance was categorized by coherence group. Differences in median test scores between these groups were assessed using the non-parametric alternative to the one-way ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis (Ryan & Joiner, 2005). Results show no significant difference (H = .66, p = .882) in creativity between coherence groups. Although short-term meditation does not increase creativity, these results encourage use of longitudinal designs when researching wellness practices.

Read the full manuscript: www.kon.org/urc/v13/kissler.html